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Unformatted text preview: ith the verb to be.
I have slain you.
You are slain.
As with the present participle, the past participle must be related to its proper noun when forming a modifying phrase:
Embarrassed by her faux pas, Ellen left the room.
If the participle is misrelated (misplaced), comic results will occur:
Wrong: Covered with aluminum foil, I popped the lasagna into the oven.
(Here it is me, and not the lasagna, that is covered with aluminum foil!) 126.96.36.199 Special Situations Absolute participle constructions are rare, and normally consist of noun and participle - the noun to which the participle refers is
actually present, although it does not have a function in the rest of the sentence:
The game being over, the players all went home.
Weather permitting, the wedding will be held outdoors.
A similar construction has the preposition with:
I returned to school with my essay revised.
A few participles have virtually become prepositions in their own right. These are: www.manhattanreview.com c 1999 - 2008 Manhattan Review Sentence Correction Guide – Grammar Review 22 barring, considering, excepting, including, owing (to), regarding, respecting, seeing, touching;
and the past forms,
excepted, provided, given.
Student Notes: 1.7.6 Gerund & Inﬁnitive The GERUND is a verbal noun, in English a word ending in “-ing”. In fact, many grammerians of English use the term PARTICIPLE
to include the gerund. Take the word “visiting” in the sentence: “They appreciate my visiting their parents regularly.”
Like participles, gerunds are verbal elements which take on the role of another part of speech (in this case, that of a noun).
More common is the form ending in -ing, and this is identical with the form of the present participle. The two are distinguished only
Taking this route was a mistake. (subject, taking)
Why are we going this way? (participle, going)
There is no preferred version, but it is important to maintain parallelism in your constructions.
If an ordinary noun can be substituted for the -ing form, then it is a gerund, e.g.,
Taking it was the fun part.
Its capture was the fun part.
The gerund retains its verbal function by taking an object:
Owning a monkey is very unconventional.
Less commonly, the noun function dictates the form:
The wearing of pink by red-headed people is a major fashion crime. (Wearing pink . . . )
Where a noun or pronoun is used with a gerund, it should be in the possessive case:
My admonishing him will not change his mind.
It was his winning that bothered me, not my losing.
I can’t stand my mother’s telling my friends embarrassing stories about me.
Any word may be used as an attributive (adjective) if placed before a noun. A gerund may be used this way (called a gerundive); its
form is identical with the present participle, but the meaning will be different: www.manhattanreview.com c 1999 - 2008 Manhattan Review Sentence Correction Guide – Grammar Review 23 A building reputation - participle (a reputation that i...
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