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Unformatted text preview: That (conjunction)
(5) reciprocal pronouns (each other, one another)
(6) interrogative pronouns (who, what, when, where, why etc.)
• Five w’s of a journalist’s ﬁrst paragraph
(7) relative pronouns (who, that, what, which etc.)
• Related different clauses in a sentence to each other
• That vs. Which: restrictive vs. non-restrictive clause
• Who vs. Whom: take subject vs. take object (Please see explanation later.)
(8) indeﬁnite pronouns (any, none, somebody, nobody, anyone, etc.)
• none = singular (when it means “not one”); all = plural (if countable);
• much = can’t be counted; many = can be counted
• less = can’t be counted; fewer = can be counted 1.2.2 Nominative and Objective Cases There are two pronominal cases: nominative (subject) and objective (object).
Subject: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they.
Object: me, you, him/her/it, us, you, them.
Notice that the second person (both singular and plural) has only one form, you. The object case is used after verbs and prepositions:
We met her in a bookstore. She went to school with us.
Be careful of objects that consist of a proper noun (name) + a pronoun: www.manhattanreview.com c 1999 - 2008 Manhattan Review Sentence Correction Guide – Grammar Review 5 The puppy looked across the table at Sarah and me.
These situations can seem confusing, but there is an easy method to tell which pronoun (nominative or objective) is required. Just
remove the noun from the sentence to see if it still makes sense. If it does (as in “The puppy looked across the table at me”), then
you have selected the correct pronoun. If it does not (as in “The puppy looked across the table at I”), then you should go back and
check whether you selected the correct case for the pronoun (in this case it is the object of a preposition, at, so it should be in the
The relative pronoun who also has an objective case form, whom:
I kicked the girl who tried to steal my coat.
(I kicked the girl. She tried to steal my coat.)
I smiled at the girl whom I had kicked.
(I smiled at the girl. I had kicked her.) 1.2.3 Possessive Forms All these pronouns have possessive forms that do not have apostrophes:
my, your, his/her/its, our, your, their
These act as adjectives, and are followed by nouns. If there is no noun and the possessive form is used by itself, this form is said to
mine, yours, his/hers/its, ours, yours, theirs.
Again, there is no apostrophe. The relative pronoun who has the possessive form whose:
I comforted the dog whose tail had been stepped on.
One is used as a supplementary pronoun; it does have an apostrophe in the possessive:
One can only do one’s best.
Note that one’s is used only if the subject one is present; following with his would not be acceptable. 1.2.4 Agreement & Reference There are several pronominal forms which seem to be plural but act as singular, taking singular verbs and singular pronouns if they
act as antecedents. The most common of these word...
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