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Some building blocks - gerund (blocks for building with)
A working appliance - participle (an appliance that works)
working papers - gerund (papers which allow you to work)
The inﬁnitive form of a verb has a “to” proceeding it:
to + verb
The inﬁnitive form may be used in this function:
To err is human, to forgive, divine.
(= Error is human, forgiveness, divine.)
Care must be taken not to use a mixture of the two forms:
Talking to him was one thing, but kissing him was entirely another!
To talk to him was one thing, but to kiss him was entirely another!
Not: Talking to him was one thing, but to kiss him was entirely another!
Do avoid inserting a word or a phrase between the to and the verb in the inﬁnitive form. This error is known as a split inﬁnitive.
I asked him to quickly clean the table.
I asked him to clean the table quickly.
Student Notes: www.manhattanreview.com c 1999 - 2008 Manhattan Review Sentence Correction Guide – Grammar Review 1.8 24 Conjunction Conjunctions are used to connect words or constructions. You should simply keep in mind that the most common conjunctions
are AND, BUT, OR, which are used to connect units (nouns, phrases, gerunds, and clauses) of equal status and function. The other
conjunctions, BECAUSE, IF, ALTHOUGH, AS, connect a subordinate clause to its superordinate clause, as in “We did it BECAUSE
he told us to.”
Generally don’t begin sentences with conjunctions- however is better than but for this, but it goes best after semicolons. Or use the
Correlative expressions such as either/or, neither/nor, both/and, not only/but also and not/but should all correlate ideas expressed
with the same grammatical construction.
Special care has to be taken with clauses: only clauses of the same kind can be joined with a conjunction. Similarly, a phrase cannot
be joined to a clause.
American usage is extremely fastidious in making constructions parallel, and this is another one of the common tricks in the Sentence
Correction questions. Keep a lookout for conjunctions and lists, and you will be able to catch these errors. 1.9
1.9.1 Helpful Topics
Punctuation Punctuation is the practice in writing of using a set of marks to regulate texts and clarify their meanings, mainly by separating
or linking words, phrases and clauses. Currently, punctuation is not used as heavily as in the past. Punctuation styles vary from
individual, newspaper to newspaper and press to press, in terms of what they consider necessary.
Improper punctuation can create ambiguities or misunderstandings in writing, especially when the comma is misused. For example,
consider the following examples:
“They did not go, because they were lazy.” In this case, the people in question did not go for one reason: “because they were
lazy.” But consider the sentence again:
“They did not go because they were lazy.” In this case, without the comma, the people probably DID go, but not because they
were lazy, f...
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