The grammar review section and follow the six steps

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Unformatted text preview: ge. Goal I: Effectiveness of the Language To achieve conciseness & clarity in a sentence, you should pick the choices that contain: a. No wordiness or fragment b. No redundancy Example: the remarkable growth in increased revenue c. No ambiguous double negative meanings d. No possibility for multiple interpretations of the sentence e. No change in meaning or intent Also, be suspicious of any answer choice containing: “being” “thing” Goal II: Correctness of the Language 2.5.1 Modifiers Be aware: a. A participle at the start of a sentence must modify the subject of the sentence. Otherwise, it is a dangling participle. Wrong Having read the book, there is no question the book is better than the film. Correct Having read the book, I have no doubt that the book is better than the film. Also please pay attention to: b. Misplaced modifying clause. Wrong Whether baked or mashed, Tom loves potatoes. c 1999 - 2008 Manhattan Review Sentence Correction Guide – Sentence Correction 50 Correct Tom loves potatoes, whether baked or mashed. c. Ambiguous modifying clause Example People who jog frequently develop knee problems. To eliminate ambiguity, you can change it to: People develop knee problems if they jog frequently. Or People frequently develop knee problems if they jog. d. Proximity between the modifier and the modified object Limiting modifiers (just, only, hardly, almost) must be used immediately before what they modify: Wrong The priest only sees children on Tuesdays between 4pm and 6pm. Correct depending on meaning The priest sees only children on Tuesdays between 4pm and 6pm. -orThe priest sees children only on Tuesdays between 4pm and 6pm. -orThe priest sees children on Tuesdays only between 4pm and 6pm. e. Correct use of that vs which modifying clauses As relative pronouns the two words “that” and “which” are often interchangeable: The house that/which stands on the hill is up for sale. The school that/which they go to is just around the corner. (When that or which is the object of a following verb, it can be omitted altogether, as in The school they go to . . ..) When the relative clause adds incidental (non-essential) information rather than identifying the noun it follows, which is used and is preceded by a comma: The house, which stands on the hill, is up for sale. It means: The house is up for sale. It happens to be on the hill. When the relative clause identifies the noun it follows with essential information rather than adding incremental information, that is used without a comma: The house that stands on the hill is up for sale. It implies: The house on the hill is up for sale. Not the house on the lake. In other words, you can remove which from the sentence without affecting the meaning, while you have to keep that in the sentence to understand it fully. f. Correct usage of the modifier, such as “little” vs. “few” g. Difference between adjective and adverb as modifiers www.manhat...
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