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Unformatted text preview: or some other reason (they did not go because they were lazy, they went because they were tired).
Periods and Commas
(1) Periods and Commas: the most common form of punctuation. The period ends a sentence, whereas the comma marks out
associated words within sentences. Commas are used for pauses, prepositional phrases, and appositive clauses offset from the
rest of the sentence to rename a proper noun (Thomas, a baker,); they are the rest stop in English language.
(2) Colons, Semicolons, and Dashes (or Hypens): Many people avoid the use of colon and semicolon, because of uncertainty as
to their precise uses. In less formal writing, the dash is often used to take the place of both the colon and the semi-colon. The
rule is that both colons and semicolons must follow a complete independent clause. A semicolon must be followed by another
complete clause, either dependent or independent. A colon may be followed by a list or phrase, or by a complete clause.
• The APOSTROPHE (’) used to show possession: Those books are Thomas’s books.
• The COLON (:) is normally used in a sentence to lead from one idea to its consequences or logical continuation. The
colon is used to lead from one thought to another.
• The SEMICOLON (;) is normally used to link two parallel statements. www.manhattanreview.com c 1999 - 2008 Manhattan Review Sentence Correction Guide – Grammar Review 25 • Consider the following examples:
– COLON: “There was no truth in the accusation: they rejected it utterly.”
∗ Points to a cause/effect relationship, as a result of ...
– SEMICOLON: “There was no truth in the accusation; it was totally false.” (Here two parallel statements are linked
“no truth” and “totally false”. In the COLON example, the consequence is stated after the insertion of the colon).
∗ Re-states initial premise, creates relation between disparate parts
∗ Technically these sentences could be broken down into two separate sentences and they would remain grammatically sound. But two sentences here would suggest separateness (which in speech the voice would convey
with a longer pause) that is not always appropriate.
• HYPHENS or DASHES: The hyphen or dash is perhaps most important in order to avoid ambiguity, and is used to link
words. Consider the following example:
– “Fifty-odd people” and “Fifty odd people”. When the hyphen is used, the passage means “approximately ﬁfty
people.” But the second passage means “ﬁfty strange people”.
Otherwise, the use of the hyphen is declining. It was formerly used to separate vowels (co-ordinate, make-up), but this practice is
House plant → house-plant → houseplant 1.9.2 List of Irregular Verbs To correctly use the verbs in different tense forms, please study the list carefully.
Drink www.manhattanreview.com Past...
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