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Lecture 16 (November 6th, 2012)

Controllable aspects of evaluations they

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Unformatted text preview: at person could do with the race, gender, etc. of that person. • Explicit attitudes are better predicted by what it is we actually say, with deliberate controlled types of behavior. These attitudes may not always agree. You may have the exact same object/person, and your implicit/explicit attitude with that person may not line- up together. You may have a positive implicit attitude but a negative explicit attitude. Cognitive Dissonance: Cognitive Dissonance: an uncomfortable mental state that arises when conflicts occur between attitudes or between attitudes and behavior. You have an aversive physiological reaction. Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959: • Participants performed a boring knob- turning task. Then they were asked to motivate another participant. They were paid either $1 or $20 to lie about the pleasurableness of the task. Participants who were paid only $1 to mislead a fellow participant experienced cognitive dissonance, which led them to alter their attitudes about how pleasurable the task had been. Post- decisional dissonance: Tension that occurs when someone has to choose between multiple attractive options. Once our bachelor has chosen between his two options, this means that he has not chosen the alternatives of that other person. Justification of effort: People who suffer through severe initiation rituals end up valuing their group memberships more compared to those group members accepted without initiation (Aronson and Mills, 1959). • They studied all female participants. They were joining this group that was to discuss sexual things, and the experimenter saying that we want you to feel comfortable so these are words and scenarios that I want you to say out loud to me (they had this list of dirty words that they had to say), and those who said okay and did it, ended up valuing the group more. • The group turned out to suck. They were talking about the mating habits of frogs and no one should have really valued that group, but if they had gone through this severe initiation ritual, they ended up rating the group more highly than those who were able to join the group no problem. Persuasion: A big part of attitudes literature is persuasion. Persuasion refers to the active and conscious effort to change...
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