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Lecture 16 (November 6th, 2012)

Of source perceived expertise of source

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Unformatted text preview: es towards people, except it doesn't necessarily have to be attitudes. We have our falling gentleman, which is the behavior. And it either has a situational explanation or a dispositional explanation. So maybe they are clumsy or drunk or maybe there is something about the person that is explaining their behavior. When we're looking at somebody's behavior, the situational variables fade into the background. We take to make dispositional inferences ("Why did she do that? Because she's lazy, or evil, or clumsy.”) Attributions: People’s causal explanations for why events or actions occur. Persona attributions: Explanations that refer to internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, and effort. Situational attributions: Explanations that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or the actions of other people. The Fundamental Attribution Error (FACE): The tendency for people to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining the behavior of others. • Cultural differences: although Westerners tend to do this more than Easterners (Westerners take more holistic views of things). Indians are more likely to take situational variables into account. Actor/observer discrepancy: When people make attributions about themselves, they tend to focus on situational variables, rather than on their personal dispositions, particularly for negative events. • When negative events happen, it is not because we’re bad or lazy or evil or unintelligent, it is because of something in the situation. We use self- serving attributions to protect ourselves without giving others the same credit. Impression Formation: Stereotypes Stereotypes: Cognitive schemas that allow for easy, fast processing of information about people based on their membership in certain groups. So when we see someone, we may use the color of their skin and their gender to use a stereotype to figure out who this person is and to try to predict their behavior, etc. based on their group membership. Stereotypes are not necessarily negative or positive. They are neutral. We simply use them to efficiently understand other people. So our gentleman on the slide is a person who we have to form an impression of immediately based on the photo we...
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