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Unformatted text preview: vard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA Chapter 2 The Project Management Context A Guide to the A Guide to the Projects and project management operate in an environment broader than that of the project itself. The project management team must understand this broader context--managing the day-to-day activities of the project is necessary for success but not sufficient. This chapter describes key aspects of the project management context not covered elsewhere in this document. The topics included here are: 2.1 Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle 2.2 Project Stakeholders 2.3 Organizational Influences 2.4 Key General Management Skills 2.5 Social-Economic-Environmental Influences Project Project Management Management Body of Body of KnowledgeE L KnowledgeE PL 2.1 PROJECT PHASES AND THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
Because projects are unique undertakings, they involve a degree of uncertainty. Organizations performing projects will usually divide each project into several project phases to improve management control and provide for links to the ongoing operations of the performing organization. Collectively, the project phases are known as the project life cycle. MP AM SA S 2.1.1 Characteristics of Project Phases Each project phase is marked by completion of one or more deliverables. A deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work product such as a feasibility study, a detail design, or a working prototype. The deliverables, and hence the phases, are part of a generally sequential logic designed to ensure proper definition of the product of the project. The conclusion of a project phase is generally marked by a review of both key deliverables and project performance to date, to a) determine if the project should continue into its next phase and b) detect and correct errors cost effectively. These phase-end reviews are often called phase exits, stage gates, or kill points. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) 2000 Edition 2000 Project Management Institute, Four Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA NAVIGATION LINKS ACROYMNS LIST ACRONYMS LIST 11 ACROYMNS LIST Chapter 2--The Project Management Context 2.1.2 | 2.1.3 Each project phase normally includes a set of defined deliverables designed to establish the desired level of management control. The majority of these items are related to the primary phase deliverable, and the phases typically take their names from these items: requirements, design, build, test, startup, turnover, and others, as appropriate. Several representative project life cycles are described in Section 2.1.3. ment ment geE L geE PL P 2.1.2 Characteristics of the Project Life Cycle The project life cycle serves to define the beginning and the end of a project. For example, when an organization identifies an opportunity to which it would like to respond, it will often authorize a needs assessment and/or a feasibility study to decide if it should undertake a project. The project life-cycle definition wi...
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