A Guide to Project Management

A functional group is not producing according to plan

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Unformatted text preview: ir interactions. This chapter provides an introduction to the concept of project management as a number of interlinked processes, and thus provides an essential foundation for understanding the process descriptions in Chapters 4 through 12. It includes the following major sections: 3.1 Project Processes 3.2 Process Groups 3.3 Process Interactions 3.4 Customizing Process Interactions 3.5 Mapping of Project Management Processes Project Project Management Management Body of Body of KnowledgeE L KnowledgeE PL MP AM SA S 3.1 PROJECT PROCESSES Projects are composed of processes. A process is "a series of actions bringing about a result" (1). Project processes are performed by people and generally fall into one of two major categories: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) 2000 Edition 2000 Project Management Institute, Four Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA NAVIGATION LINKS ACROYMNS LIST ACRONYMS LIST 29 ACROYMNS LIST Chapter 3--Project Management Processes 3.2 | Figure 33 Project management processes describe, organize, and complete the work of the project. The project management processes that are applicable to most projects, most of the time, are described briefly in this chapter and in detail in Chapters 4 through 12. Product-oriented processes specify and create the project's product. Product-oriented processes are typically defined by the project life cycle (discussed in Section 2.1) and vary by application area (discussed in Appendix E). Project management processes and product-oriented processes overlap and interact throughout the project. For example, the scope of the project cannot be defined in the absence of some basic understanding of how to create the product. 3.2 PROCESS GROUPS Project management processes can be organized into five groups of one or more processes each: Initiating processes--authorizing the project or phase. Planning processes--defining and refining objectives and selecting the best of the alternative courses of action to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to address. Executing processes--coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan. Controlling processes--ensuring that project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress regularly to identify variances from plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary. Closing processes--formalizing acceptance of the project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end. The process groups are linked by the results they produce--the result or outcome of one often becomes an input to another. Among the central process groups, the links are iterated--planning provides executing with a documented project plan early on, and then provides documented updates to the plan as the project progresses. These connections are illustrated in Figure 3-1. In addition, the project management process groups are not discrete, one-time events; they are overlapping activities that occur at varying leve...
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