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Unformatted text preview: benefit/cost tradeoffs, as described in Section 188.8.131.52. The primary benefit of meeting quality requirements is less rework, which means higher productivity, lower costs, and increased stakeholder satisfaction. The primary cost of meeting quality requirements is the expense associated with project quality management activities. It is axiomatic of the quality management discipline that the benefits outweigh the costs. .2 Benchmarking. Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects to generate ideas for improvement and to provide a standard by which to measure performance. The other projects may be within the performing organization or outside of it, and may be within the same application area or in another. .3 Flowcharting. A flow chart is any diagram that shows how various elements of a system relate. Flowcharting techniques commonly used in quality management include: Cause-and-effect diagrams, also called Ishikawa diagrams or fishbone diagrams, which illustrate how various factors might be linked to potential problems or effects. Figure 8-2 is an example of a generic cause-and-effect diagram. System or process flow charts, which show how various elements of a system interrelate. Figure 8-3 is an example of a process flow chart for design reviews. 98 NAVIGATION LINKS ACROYMNS LIST ACRONYMS LIST ACROYMNS LIST A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) 2000 Edition 2000 Project Management Institute, Four Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA Chapter 8--Project Quality Management Time Machine Method Material Major Defect
Energy Measurement Personnel Environment Potential Causes
Figure 82. Cause-and-Effect Diagram Effect Flowcharting can help the project team anticipate what and where quality problems might occur, and thus can help develop approaches for dealing with them. .4 Design of experiments. Design of experiments is a statistical method that helps identify which factors might influence specific variables. The technique is applied most frequently to the product of the project (e.g., automotive designers might wish to determine which combination of suspension and tires will produce the most desirable ride characteristics at a reasonable cost). However, it can also be applied to project management issues, such as cost and schedule tradeoffs. For example, senior engineers will cost more than junior engineers, but can also be expected to complete the assigned work in less time. An appropriately designed "experiment" (in this case, computing project costs and durations for various combinations of senior and junior engineers) will often allow determination of an optimal solution from a relatively limited number of cases. .5 Cost of quality. Cost of quality refers to the total cost of all efforts to achieve product/ service quality, and includes all work to ensure conformance to requirements, as well as all work resulting from nonconformance to requirements....
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