The Holy Roman Empire.docx - The Holy Roman Empire (Latin:...

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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges RömischesReich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe thatdeveloped during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 duringthe Napoleonic Wars.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom ofGermany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom ofItaly, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added.However, while by the end of the 15th century the Empire was still in theory composed ofthree major blocks – Italy, Germany, and Burgundy – in practice only the Kingdom ofGermany remained, with the Burgundian territories lost to France and the Italianterritories, ignored in the Imperial Reform, although formally part of the Empire, weresplintered into numerous de facto independent territorial entities.[7][8][9][10] Theexternal borders of the Empire did not change noticeably from the Peace of Westphalia –which acknowledged the exclusion of Switzerland and the Northern Netherlands, and theFrench protectorate over Alsace – to the dissolution of the Empire. By then, it largelycontained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia, the southernNetherlands and lands of Carniola. At the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, mostof the Holy Roman Empire was included in the German Confederation.On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor,reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlierancient Western Roman Empire in 476. In theory and diplomacy, the Emperors wereconsidered primus inter pares, regarded as first among equals among other RomanCatholic monarchs across Europe.[11] The title continued in the Carolingian family until888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series ofcivil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title wasrevived again in 962 when Otto I, King of Germany, was crowned emperor, fashioninghimself as the successor of Charlemagne[12] and beginning a continuous existence of theempire for over eight centuries.[13][14][15] Some historians refer to the coronation ofCharlemagne as the origin of the empire,[16][17] while others prefer the coronation ofOtto I as its beginning.[18][19] Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolutionof the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumptionof the imperial title and role.[8][16]The exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, before whichthe empire was referred to variously as universum regnum ("the whole kingdom", asopposed to the regional kingdoms), imperium christianum ("Christian empire"), orRomanum imperium ("Roman empire"),[20] but the Emperor's legitimacy always rested onthe concept of translatio imperii,[d] that he held supreme power inherited from the

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