Unformatted text preview: surements to date on the
inclusive and exclusive reactions on 12 C at low energies.
Estimates of the cross sections using a variety of different
techniques (shell model, RPA, QRPA, effective particle theory)
8 Neutrinos from decay-in-ﬂight muons also allowed for cross
section measurements for energies below 300 MeV.
Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 84, No. 3, July–September 2012 demonstrate the robustness of the calculations. Some disagreement can be seen in the inclusive channels; this
disagreement is to be expected since the ﬁnal state is not as
well deﬁned as in the exclusive channels. More recent predictions employing extensive shell model calculations appear
to show better agreement with the experimental data. A plot
showing the collected data from the exclusive reaction
Cðe ; eÀ Þ12 N and 12 Cð ; À Þ12 N are shown in Figs. 6
and 7, respectively.
Table VII also lists other nuclei that have been under
experimental study. Proton beam stops at the Los Alamos
Meson Physics Facility have also been utilized to study lowenergy neutrino cross sections on 127 I. Cross sections on iron
targets have also been explored with low-energy beams at the
KARMEN experiment (Ruf, 2005).
Perhaps the most remarkable of such measurements was
the use of MCi radiological sources for low-energy electron
cross section measurements. Both the Soviet-American
Gallium Experiment (SAGE) (Abdurashitov et al., 1999)
and GALLium EXperiment (GALLEX) (Anselmann et al.,
1995) solar neutrino experiments have made use of a MCi
51 Cr source to study the reaction 71 Gað ; eÀ Þ71 Ge to both
the ground and excited states of 71 Ge. The source strength of
Cr is typically determined using calorimetric techniques
and the uncertainty on the ﬁnal activity is constrained to
about 1%–2%. The SAGE collaboration subsequently also
made use of a gaseous 37 ArMCi source. Its activity, using a Joseph A. Formaggio and G. P. Zeller: From eV to EeV: Neutrino cross sections . . . 12 Ng.s.) (10-42 cm2) 1322
45 supernova physics (Langanke et al., 2004; Heger et al., 2005).
Measurements of neutrino cross sections on nuclear targets is
currently being revisited now that new high intensity stopped
pion and muon sources are once again becoming available
(Avignone et al., 2000). KARMEN, PPNP 32, 351 (1994) 40 LSND PRC 64, 065001 (2001) 35 Fukugita, et al. 30
25 e- 20
15 G. Transitioning to higher energy scales 5 ( e 12 C 10 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 E (MeV) FIG. 6. Cross section as a function of neutrino energy for the
exclusive reaction 12 Cðe ; eÀ Þ12 N from À decay-at-rest neutrinos.
Experimental data measured by the KARMEN (Zeitnitz et al.,
1994) and LSND (Athanassopoulos et al., 1997; Auerbach et al.,
2001) experiments. Theoretical prediction from Fukugita, Kohyama,
and Kubodera, 1988. 140 LSND PRC 66, 015501 (2002) 120 Engel, et al. 100
20 ( 12
µ µ- 12 Ng.s.) (10-42 cm2) variety of techniques, is constrained to better than 0.5%
(Haxton, 1998; Barsanov et al., 200...
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