And projections viii summary acknowledgments

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Unformatted text preview: ections VIII. Summary Acknowledgments References 1332 1333 1333 1333 1335 1336 1337 1337 1337 I. INTRODUCTION The investigation into the basic properties of the particle known as the neutrino has been a particularly strong and active area of research within nuclear and particle physics. Research conducted over the latter half of the 20th century has revealed, for example, that neutrinos can no longer be considered as massless particles in the standard model, representing perhaps the first significant alteration to the theory. Moving into the 21st century, neutrino research continues to expand in new directions. Researchers further investigate the nature of the neutrino mass or explore whether neutrinos can help explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe. At the heart of many of these experiments is the need for neutrinos to interact with other standard model particles. An understanding of these basic interaction cross sections is often an understated but truly essential element of any experimental neutrino program. The known reactions of neutrinos with matter fall completely within the purview of the standard model of particle physics. The model of electroweak interactions govern what those reactions should be, with radiative corrections that can be Ó 2012 American Physical Society 1308 Joseph A. Formaggio and G. P. Zeller: From eV to EeV: Neutrino cross sections . . . accurately calculated to many orders. As such, our goal in this review is essentially already complete: we would simply write down the electroweak Lagrangian and we would be finished. Of course, in practice this is very far from the truth. As with many other disciplines, many factors compound our simple description, including unclear initial-state conditions, subtlebut-important nuclear corrections, final-state interactions, and other effects. One quickly finds that theoretical approximations which work well in one particular energy regime completely break down elsewhere. Even the language used in describing certain processes in one context may seem completely foreign in another. Previous neutrino experiments could avoid this issue by virtue of the energy range in which they operated; now, however, more experiments find themselves ‘‘crossing boundaries’’ between different energy regimes. Thus, the need for understanding neutrino cross sections across many decades of energy is becoming more imperative. To summarize our current collective understanding, this work provides a review of neutrino cross sections across all explored energy scales. The range of energies covered, as well as their relevance to various neutrino sources, is highlighted in Fig. 1. We first establish the formalism of neutrino interactions by considering the simplest case of neutrino-electron scattering. Our focus will then shift to neutrino interaction cross sections at low (1–100 MeV), intermediate (0.1–20 GeV), high (20–500 GeV), and ultrahigh (0.5 TeV–1 EeV) energies, empha...
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This document was uploaded on 09/28/2013.

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