**Unformatted text preview: **e outgoing neutrino is not reconstructed. Thus, experimentally, all of the event information
must be inferred from the hadronic shower in that case.
Using these variables, the inclusive cross section for DIS
scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos can be written as
2
"
d2 ;
G2 ME
y
F
¼
2xF1 ðx; Q2 Þ
2 =M2 Þ2 2
dxdy
ð1 þ Q
W;Z
Mxy
F2 ðx; Q2 Þ
þ 1ÀyÀ
2E
y
2Þ ;
(86)
Æ y 1 À xF3 ðx; Q
2 i¼u;d;... X "
½xqðx; Q2 Þ À xqðx; Q2 Þ; (89) where RL ðx; Q2 Þ is the ratio of cross sections for scattering off
longitudinally and transversely polarized exchange bosons.
Measurement of these structure functions has been the
focus of many charged lepton and neutrino DIS experiments, which together have probed F2 ðx; Q2 Þ, RL ðx; Q2 Þ,
and xF3 (in the case of neutrino scattering) over a wide range
of x and Q2 values (Nakamura, K. et al., 2010). Neutrino
scattering is unique, however, in that it measures the valence
quark distributions through measurement of xF3 and the
strange quark distribution through detection of neutrinoinduced dimuon production. These provide important constraints that cannot be obtained from either electron or muon
scattering experiments.
While Eq. (86) provides a tidy picture of neutrino DIS,
additional effects must be included in any realistic description
of these processes. The inclusion of lepton masses (Albright
and Jarlskog, 1975; Kretzer and Reno, 2002), higher order
QCD processes (Moch and Vermaseren, 2000; McFarland
and Moch, 2003; Dobrescu and Ellis, 2004), nuclear effects,
radiative corrections (Sirlin and Marciano, 1981; Arbuzov
et al., 2005; De Rujula, Petronzio, and Savoy-Navarro, 1979;
Bardin and Dokuchaeva, 1986; Diener et al., 2004), target
mass effects (Schienbein et al., 2008), heavy quark production (Barnett, 1976; Georgi and Politzer, 1976; Gottschalk,
1981), and nonperturbative higher twist effects (Buras, 1980)
further modify the scattering kinematics and cross sections.
In general, these contributions are typically well known and
do not add large uncertainties to the predicted cross sections.
Having completed a brief description of DIS, we next turn
to some of the experimental measurements. Table XIV lists
the most recent experiments that have probed such highenergy neutrino scattering. To isolate DIS events, neutrino
experiments typically apply kinematic cuts to remove
quasielastic scattering (Sec. V.A) and resonance-mediated
(Sec. V.C) contributions from their data. Using high statistics
samples of DIS events, these experiments have provided
measurements of the weak mixing angle sin2 W from NC where GF is again the Fermi weak coupling constant, MW;Z is
the mass of the W Æ (Z0 boson) in the case of CC (NC)
scattering, and the þðÀÞ sign in the last term refers to
neutrino (antineutrino) interactions. In Eq. (86), Fi ðx; Q2 Þ
are the dimensionless nucleon structure functions that encompass the underlying structure of the target. For electron
scattering, there...

View
Full
Document