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conventional PDF makes use of the Dokshitzer-GribovLipatov-Altarelli-Parisi formalism (Altarelli and Parisi,
1977; Dokshitzer, 1977), which is a next-to-leading order Joseph A. Formaggio and G. P. Zeller: From eV to EeV: Neutrino cross sections . . . QCD calculation. As one pushes further down in x, the PDFs
introduce greater uncertainties, whereby other approaches
can be used, such as the formalism adopted by the
Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov group (Kuraev, Lipatov, and
Fadin, 1977; Ciafaloni et al., 2006). In reality, the approaches
of both Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi and
Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov need to be combined in order
to properly account for the Q2 and x evolution of these PDFs.
One of the more difﬁcult effects to account for in these
parametrization schemes is that of gluon recombination
(gg ! g). Such a saturation must take place at the very
highest energies in order to preserve unitarity. Groups have
made use of nonlinear color glass condensate models as a way
to model these effects (Iancu and Venugopalan, 2003). Such
techniques have been successfully applied to Relativistic
Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data (Jalilian-Marian and
VIII. SUMMARY In this work, we presented a comprehensive review of
neutrino interaction cross sections. Our discussion ranged
from eV to EeV energy scales and therefore spanned a broad
range of underlying physics processes, theoretical calculations, and experimental measurements.
While our knowledge of neutrino scattering may not be
equally precise at all energies, one cannot help but marvel at
how far our theoretical frameworks extend. From literally
zero-point energy to unfathomable reaches, it appears that our
models can shed some light in the darkness. Equally remarkable is the effort by which we seek to ground our theories.
Where data do not exist, we seek other anchors by which we
can assess their validity. When even that approach fails, we
pile model against model in the hopes of ﬁnding weaknesses
that ultimately will strengthen our foundations.
As the journey continues into the current millennium, we
ﬁnd that more and more direct data are being collected to
guide our theoretical understanding. Currently, new experiments are coming online to shed more light on neutrino
interactions. Therefore, we believe that, as comprehensive
as we have tried to make this review, it is certainly an
incomplete story whose chapters continue to be written.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank S. Brice, S. Dytman, D. Naples, J. P.
Krane, G. Mention, and R. Tayloe for help in gathering
experimental data used in this review. The authors also thank
W. Haxton, W. Donnelly, and R. G. H. Robertson for their
comments and suggestions pertaining to this work. J. A.
Formaggio is supported by the United States Department of
Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER-41420. G. P. Zeller
is supported via the Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under
Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States
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