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Unformatted text preview: cket is a social and public display, wearing the jacket
makes a statement about the individual. This would also make the purchase one of high
KEY: CB&E Model Customer OBJ: 06-4 TOP: AACSB MSC: BLOOMS Synthesis 8. What is the difference between culture and subculture? Why do marketing managers need to
understand culture and subculture?
CULTURE is the set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human
behavior and the artifacts, or products, of that behavior as they are transmitted from one
generation to the next. Culture is environmentally oriented and dynamic. It also gives order to
society by establishing common expectations.
SUBCULTURES are subdivisions of culture on the basis of such things as demographic
characteristics, geographic regions, national and ethnic background, political beliefs, and
religious beliefs. Subcultures are homogeneous groups that share elements of the overall culture
as well as unique elements. Within subcultures, there are even greater similarities in people’s
attitudes, values, and actions than within the broader culture. Without understanding culture, a
firm has little chance of effectively penetrating the market. As more companies expand their
operations globally, the need to understand the cultures of foreign countries becomes more
important. Marketers should become familiar with the culture and adapt to it, or marketers can
attempt to bring their own culture to other countries. Marketers should also identify subcultures
and then design special marketing programs to serve their needs.
TOP: AACSB Communication | AACSB Diversity
MSC: BLOOMS Synthesis KEY: CB&E Model 9. List and briefly describe the types of reference groups and discuss how these groups influence the
consumer decision-making process.
Reference groups can be divided into two categories: DIRECT and INDIRECT. Direct reference
groups involve face-to-face membership groups that directly touch the life of the person. Indirect
groups are nonmembership groups. Direct groups have two subcategories: PRIMARY and
SECONDARY. Primary membership groups include all groups with which the student would interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner, such as family, friends, and fellow students
or employees. Interaction with secondary membership groups is less consistent and more formal.
These might include clubs, fraternities/sororities, religious groups, or professional groups.
Indirect groups have two subcategories: ASPIRATIONAL and NONASPIRATIONAL.
Aspirational groups are those of which the student is currently not a member but would like to be.
These might include fraternities, sororities, campus groups, or other clubs that the student wishes
to join. Nonaspirational groups are those from which the student wishes to maintain a distance.
These might include competing fraternities or sororities, failing students, or unsuccessful
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This document was uploaded on 09/29/2013.
- Fall '13