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Unformatted text preview: clude security and freedom from pain and discomfort.
Text examples include health screenings to relieve consumer fears and anxieties and an image
campaign to reassure consumers about the safety of air travel. SOCIAL NEEDS involve a sense
of belonging and love. Examples could include any messages advertising that the use of the
product will bring love. These products might include clothes, cosmetics, and vacation packages.
ESTEEM NEEDS include self-respect, feelings of accomplishment, prestige, fame, and
recognition. Text examples include Mont Blanc pens, Mercedes-Benz automobiles, and Neiman
Marcus stores. SELF-ACTUALIZATION is the highest human need. It refers to self-fulfillment
and self-expression. Text examples include American Express ads, Microsoft, and the U.S. Army
KEY: CB&E Model Customer OBJ: 06-8 TOP: AACSB MSC: BLOOMS Synthesis 14. Define stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination and give an example of how each is
Stimulus generalization is a form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a
second stimulus similar to the first. Any product line extension will be a satisfactory example.
Stimulus discrimination is a learned ability to differentiate among similar products. There are
many examples of stimulus discrimination. Students’ examples should indicate how superficial
differences are emphasized in promotions.
KEY: CB&E Model Customer OBJ: 06-8 TOP: AACSB MSC: BLOOMS Synthesis 15. Compare and contrast beliefs and attitudes.
Beliefs and attitudes are closely linked to values. A belief is defined as an organized pattern of
knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world. Consumers form beliefs about products based on knowledge, faith, or hearsay. Sets of beliefs form the basis for an attitude. An
attitude is a learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object. Attitudes tend to be
more enduring and complex than beliefs. Attitudes also encompass an individual’s value system,
which represents personal standards of good and bad, right and wrong, and so forth.
KEY: CB&E Model Customer OBJ: 06-8 TOP: AACSB MSC: BLOOMS Synthesis 16. Apply the three methods of changing attitudes or beliefs about brands to possibilities for the
marketing activities of Kellogg’s Corn Flakes (or another breakfast cereal you are more familiar
CHANGING BELIEFS ABOUT ATTRIBUTES. Kellogg’s could work to promote the image of a
family cereal by changing consumers’ beliefs about children’s cereals. Any negative beliefs or
misconceptions should also be changed. For example, consumers may believe the cereal is high in
sugar, when actually it is not. CHANGING THE IMPORTANCE OF BELIEFS. Kellogg’s could
start emphasizing certain attributes that already exist. These might include environmental
concerns (a package made of 100 percent recycled materials) or consumer preferences (the
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- Fall '13