Running Head: MIDTERMMidtermAlexa EnglandAmerican Military UniversitySensation and PerceptionProf. Ellen MillerJanuary 31, 2021
MIDTERM1.The process of perception is usually, but not always, unconscious andhappens hundreds of thousands of times per day.The first step in thisprocess is selection. The world around us is chaotic and contains manydifferent stimuli. It is impossible for our brains to pay attention to everysingle thing going on, so we have to be able to focus in on some thing orthings. This focus can be intentional or unintentional, and depends on theenvironment of the stimulus. We focus on a stimulus and take in informationabout it. Then, we move on to the second step, organization. After we choosea stimulus to pay attention to, our sensory receptors are activated and theytransduce the energy we are taking in into electrical signals. Those signalsare sent to the brain, where we come up with a mental representation of thestimulus we are focusing on. The last step is interpretation. Once we havechosen a stimulus and the information has been transmitted and organized inour brains, we make sense of it based on the information we already possessabout the world around us. This is the step where the lines blur and peoplehave different perceptions. Everyone possesses different information aboutdifferent aspects of the world. Though two people might attend to the samestimulus in the same environment, they might perceive it differently. Forexample, a random person on the street might see someone carryingsomething hidden in his or her hand and ignore it. That person might nothave had bad experiences with people hiding things. Meanwhile, a policeofficer might perceive that the person to be carrying a gun. This perception2
MIDTERMwould be based on the information he or she has gathered in negativeexperiences with people hiding things (Lumen Learning, n. d.a).2.Neurons are cells that send information to each other on the way tothe brain. Each one is unique in the fact that it sends specific information.They are not unique, however, in the way that they are constructed. One ofthe many parts of a neuron is the axon. The axon is an elongated nerve fiberthat connects from the dendrites to the soma and it sends on the informationpassed to it. This function is similar to that of an electrical wire. They bothare designed to carry electricity. In addition, they both carry electricity toproduce something. For example, an axon carries electricity to the brain sothat we can experience and perceive an environmental stimulus. Similarly, anelectrical wire in a television carries electricity to the screen to produce apicture and/or sound (University of Texas, n. d.). On the other hand, neuronsand electrical wires are very different. A main difference is the way axons andelectrical wires are constructed. Axons are constructed in a way that makesthem able to transmit electrical charges through many different branches.