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Corning technical bulletin general guide for

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Unformatted text preview: Bulletin: General Guide for Cryogenically Storing Animal Cell Cultures (Ref. 9). Buying And Borrowing An alternative to establishing cultures by primary culture is to buy established cell cultures from organizations such as the ATCC (www.atcc.org), or the Coriell Institute for Medical Research (ccr.coriell.org). These two nonprofit organizations provide high quality cell lines that are carefully tested to ensure the authenticity of the cells. More frequently, researchers will obtain (borrow) cell lines from other laboratories. While this practice is widespread, it has one major drawback. There is a high probability that the cells obtained in this manner will not be healthy, useful cultures. This is usually due to previous mix-ups or contamination with other cell lines, or the result of contamination with microorganisms such as mycoplasmas, bacteria, fungi or yeast. These problems are covered in detail in a Corning Technical Bulletin: Understanding and Managing Cell Culture Contamination (Ref. 7). What Are Cultured Cells Like? Corning culture dishes are available in a variety of sizes and shapes for growing anchorage-dependent cells. Once in culture, cells exhibit a wide range of behaviors, characteristics and shapes. Some of the more common ones are described below. John Paul discusses these issues in detail in Chapter 3 of Cell and Tissue Culture (Ref. 3). Cell Culture Systems Two basic culture systems are used for growing cells. These are based primarily upon the ability of the cells to either grow attached to a glass or treated plastic substrate (Monolayer Culture Sytems) or floating free in the culture medium (Suspension Culture Systems). Monolayer cultures are usually grown in tissue culture treated dishes, T-flasks, roller bottles, CellSTACKĀ® Culture Chambers, or multiple well plates, the choice being based on the number of cells needed, the nature of the culture environment, cost and personal preference. Suspension cultures are usually grown either: Corning culture flasks are used for growing anchoragedependent cells. 1. In magnetically rotated spinner flasks or shaken Erlenmeyer flasks where the cells are kept actively suspended in the medium; 2. In stationary culture vessels such as T-flasks and bottles where, although the cells are not kept agitated, they are unable to attach firmly to the substrate. Many cell lines, especially those derived from normal tissues, are considered to be Anchorage-Dependent, that is, they can only grow when attached to a suitable substrate. Some cell lines that are no longer considered normal (frequently designated as Transformed Cells) are frequently able to grow either attached to a substrate or floating free in suspension; they are Anchorage-Independent. In addition, some normal cells, such as those found in the blood, do not normally attach to substrates and always grow in suspension. Types of Cells Cultured cells are usually described based on their morphology (shape and appearance) or their functional characte...
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