Or their functional characteristics there are three

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Unformatted text preview: ristics. There are three basic morphologies: Corning spinner vessels are used for growing anchorageindependent cells in suspension. 1. Epithelial-like: cells that are attached to a substrate and appear flattened and polygonal in shape. 2. Lymphoblast-like: cells that do not attach normally to a substrate but remain in suspension with a spherical shape. 3. Fibroblast-like: cells that are attached to a substrate and appear elongated and bipolar, frequently forming swirls in heavy cultures. It is important to remember that the culture conditions play an important role in determining shape and that many cell cultures are capable of exhibiting multiple morphologies. Fibroblast-like 3T3 cells derived from mouse embryos Using cell fusion techniques, it is also possible to obtain hybrid cells by fusing cells from two different parents. These may exhibit characteristics of either parent or both parents. This technique was used in 1975 to create cells capable of producing custom tailored monoclonal antibodies. These hybrid cells (called Hybridomas) are formed by fusing two different but related cells. The first is a spleen-derived lymphocyte that is capable of producing the desired antibody. The second is a rapidly dividing myeloma cell (a type of cancer cell) that has the machinery for making antibodies but is not programmed to produce any antibody. The resulting hybridomas can produce large quantities of the desired antibody. These antibodies, called Monoclonal Antibodies due to their purity, have many important clinical, diagnostic, and industrial applications with a yearly value of well over a billion dollars. 3 Functional Characteristics Epithelial-like cell line (Cl-9) derived from rat liver. The mitotic cells indicates this culture is actively growing. The characteristics of cultured cells result from both their origin (liver, heart, etc.) and how well they adapt to the culture conditions. Biochemical markers can be used to determine if cells are still carrying on specialized functions that they performed in vivo (e.g., liver cells secreting albumin). Morphological or ultrastructural markers can also be examined (e.g., beating heart cells). Frequently, these characteristics are either lost or changed as a result of being placed in an artificial environment. Some cell lines will eventually stop dividing and show signs of aging. These lines are called Finite. Other lines are, or become immortal; these can continue to divide indefinitely and are called Continuous cell lines. When a “normal” finite cell line becomes immortal, it has undergone a fundamental irreversible change or “transformation”. This can occur spontaneously or be brought about intentionally using drugs, radiation or viruses. Transformed Cells are usually easier and faster growing, may often have extra or abnormal chromosomes and frequently can be grown in suspension. Cells that have the normal number of chromosomes are called Diploid cells; those that have other than the normal number ar...
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2013 for the course PHARM 101 taught by Professor Mishra during the Fall '11 term at Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani - Hyderabad.

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