Lec 14 - The 4 functions of metabolic pathways 1 Obtain...

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The 4 functions of metabolic  pathways 1. Obtain chemical energy from capturing solar energy or from  degradation of energy rich nutrients 2. Conversion of nutrient molecules into cellular precursors  (cell’s own characteristic molecules) 3. Polymerisation of monomeric precursors into macromolecules 4. Synthesis and degradation of specialized cellular  biomolecules Anabolism Small, simple precursors are built into large and more complex  molecules (require energy) Catabolism Organic nutrient molecules are converted into smallere, simplr end  products (releases energy) How were these metabolic  pathways elucidated? 1. Metabolic inhibitors, and genetics 2. Isotopes Metabolic Inhibitors Glycolysis was the first pathway to be elucidated, individual steps  were discovered using metabolic inhibitors -Block pathway at specific points, and lead to accumulation of  intermediates Genetic defects cause accumulation of intermediates -Phenylketonuria – Digestion of Phe leads to accumulation of  phenylpyruvate in urine Basic metabolic pathways are  ________ Essentially identical Mutations in microorganisms that inactivate metabolic enzymes  can bee easily generated and studied Chemical Labeling By labeling specific molecules without changing chemical nature  allows us to trace through pathway Iostopes Definition Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of  neutrons   specific labeling without changing the chemical  properties of the metabolites   specific atom in a metabolite can be  traced through the pathway Isotope Detection NMR can detect isotopes -Big magnets that are able to monitor metabolic pathways  invasively 5 General Principles of  Metabolic Pathways 1. Metabolic Pathways are irreversible 2. Catabolic and Anabolic Processes must differ 3. Every metabolic pathway has a committed step 4. All metabolic pathways are heavily regulated 5. Metabolic pathways in euk cells occur in specific  compartment
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Lec 14 - The 4 functions of metabolic pathways 1 Obtain...

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