exam 1 concept review hist 262 - 1 Bubonic Plague Black...

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1.Bubonic Plague:Black Death, 1340s, killed 25 million people in 5 years. Now believed to have been carried by fleas all around Europe2.Fixed wind systems: Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; Direction of the prevailing winds never shifts for long which pushed shippers to cross the Indian Ocean instead.3.Monsoon/winds: Seasonal, so navigators knew they would be able to return home. Monsoons prevailed in Indian Ocean4.Maritime empires: Portugal, Japan, and the Dutch. Controlled international trade via seizure of ports. Colonization of coastal territory, production and shipment of high-valued commodities, limited military confrontation and investment. Exploitation of improved maritime technology, expanded use of sea charts, and dependence on native collaborators.5.Little Ice Age:Artic. Mid 14thcentury in Northern Europe. Froze the Thames River (1309-1310) and led to famine, malnutrition, and eventually, the Great Drowning6.Columbus:Arrived in the Bahamas, thought he was in Asia. Religious fanatic, Christian conversion, interested in re-conquering Jerusalem7.Humboldt current: Flows NW along the west coast of South America from the southern tip of Chile to northern Peru. Conquest of Chile created new seaborne route far into the Pacific to overcome the current, so sailing ships took longer.8.Ferdinand and Isabella: Spanish Crown. Funded Columbus’s voyage. In 1492 they threw the Muslims and Jews out of Cordoba. Went on a power trip after winning a 1 year siege at Grenada9.Bartolomeu Dias: 1stto sail around the Cape of Good hope in 1488. Nobleman and Portugese explorer10. The Great Drowning of 1362:Sea swallowed vast areas of Holland and 60 parishes in Denmark and the whole North Sea Coast of England11.Stranger Effect: Feature of North American cultures. The tendency some peoples have to esteem and defer to strangers whose usefulness as arbitrators of disputes, dispensers of justice, and preservers of peace, arises from the objectivity that their foreign origins confer.12. Suleiman:Sultan (r. 1520-1566). Led Ottoman armies on rampage under enormous pace of conques. Conquered Iraq, shores of the Red Sea. Extended his rule over almost the whole southern shore of the Mediterranean. 13. Miasmas:Big piles of trash that caused diseases due to no organized garbage collection. Blamed “corrupt air” as unhealthy14. Japanese silver:Japan was the world’s leading producer of silver; Silver was relatively cheap in Japan. Merchants used Japanese silver in India, Indonesia, and China. Japanese silver supplied more cash for world’s markets—stimulatng economic activity.15.Genoa & Venice:Genoa was an independent city-state under self-rule
that Columbus came from. Genoan merchants paid for Columbus’ voyage. Venic was an important trade city of Italy, hit by the plague in 1579.

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