Branches to the address of the procedure being called

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Unformatted text preview: d task flag (NT) is set in the EFLAGS register and the new TSS's previous task link field is loaded with the old task's TSS selector. Code is expected to suspend this nested task by executing an IRET instruction which, because the NT flag is set, automatically uses the previous task link to return to the calling task. (See "Task Linking" in Chapter 6 of the Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual, Volume 3A, for information on nested tasks.) Switching tasks with the CALL instruction differs in this regard from JMP instruction. JMP does not set the NT flag and therefore does not expect an IRET instruction to suspend the task. Mixing 16-Bit and 32-Bit Calls. When making far calls between 16-bit and 32-bit code segments, use a call gate. If the far call is from a 32-bit code segment to a 16-bit code segment, the call should be made from the first 64 KBytes of the 32-bit code segment. This is because the operand-size attribute of the instruction is set to 16, so only a 16-bit return address offset can be saved. Also, the call should be made using a 16-bit call gate so that 16-bit values can be pushed on the stack. See Chapter 16, "Mixing 16-Bit and 32-Bit Code," in the Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual, Volume 3A, for more information. Far Calls in Compatibility Mode. When the processor is operating in compatibility mode, the CALL instruction can be used to perform the following types of far calls: Far call to the same privilege level, remaining in compatibility mode Far call to the same privilege level, transitioning to 64-bit mode Vol. 2 3-89 INSTRUCTION SET REFERENCE, A-M Far call to a different privilege level (inter-privilege level call), transitioning to 64bit mode Note that a CALL instruction can not be used to cause a task switch in compatibility mode since task switches are not supported in IA-32e mode. In compatibility mode, the processor always uses the segment selector part of the far address to access the corresponding descriptor in the GDT or LDT. The descriptor type (code segment, call gate) and access rights determine the type of call operation to be performed. If the selected descriptor is for a code segment, a far call to a code segment at the same privilege level is performed. (If the selected code segment is at a different privilege level and the code segment is non-conforming, a general-protection exception is generated.) A far call to the same privilege level in compatibility mode is very similar to one carried out in protected mode. The target operand specifies an absolute far address either directly with a pointer (ptr16:16 or ptr16:32) or indirectly with a memory location (m16:16 or m16:32). The operand-size attribute determines the size of the offset (16 or 32 bits) in the far address. The new code segment selector and its descriptor are loaded into CS register and the offset from the instruction is loaded into the EIP register. The difference is that 64-bit mode...
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