ia-32_instruction-set-ref_a-m

Handles these bits programs that depend upon reserved

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Unformatted text preview: , a subset of the IA-32 assembly language is used. In this subset, an instruction has the following format: label: mnemonic argument1, argument2, argument3 where: A label is an identifier which is followed by a colon. A mnemonic is a reserved name for a class of instruction opcodes which have the same function. The operands argument1, argument2, and argument3 are optional. There may be from zero to three operands, depending on the opcode. When present, they take the form of either literals or identifiers for data items. Operand identifiers are either reserved names of registers or are assumed to be assigned to data items declared in another part of the program (which may not be shown in the example). When two operands are present in an arithmetic or logical instruction, the right operand is the source and the left operand is the destination. For example: LOADREG: MOV EAX, SUBTOTAL In this example, LOADREG is a label, MOV is the mnemonic identifier of an opcode, EAX is the destination operand, and SUBTOTAL is the source operand. Some assembly languages put the source and destination in reverse order. 1.3.4 Hexadecimal and Binary Numbers Base 16 (hexadecimal) numbers are represented by a string of hexadecimal digits followed by the character H (for example, F82EH). A hexadecimal digit is a character from the following set: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F. Base 2 (binary) numbers are represented by a string of 1s and 0s, sometimes followed by the character B (for example, 1010B). The "B" designation is only used in situations where confusion as to the type of number might arise. 1.3.5 Segmented Addressing The processor uses byte addressing. This means memory is organized and accessed as a sequence of bytes. Whether one or more bytes are being accessed, a byte address is used to locate the byte or bytes in memory. The range of memory that can be addressed is called an address space. The processor also supports segmented addressing. This is a form of addressing where a program may have many independent address spaces, called segments. For example, a program can keep its code (instructions) and stack in separate Vol. 2 1-5 ABOUT THIS MANUAL segments. Code addresses would always refer to the code space, and stack addresses would always refer to the stack space. The following notation is used to specify a byte address within a segment: Segment-register:Byte-address For example, the following segment address identifies the byte at address FF79H in the segment pointed by the DS register: DS:FF79H The following segment address identifies an instruction address in the code segment. The CS register points to the code segment and the EIP register contains the address of the instruction. CS:EIP 1.3.6 Exceptions An exception is an event that typically occurs when an instruction causes an error. For example, an attempt to divide by zero generates an exception. However, some exceptions, such as breakpoints, occur under other conditions. Som...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.

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