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Unformatted text preview: nerally specified as a label in assembly code. But at the machine code level, it is encoded as a signed, 16- or 32-bit immediate value. This value is added to the value in the EIP(RIP) register. In 64-bit mode the relative offset is always a 32-bit immediate value which is sign extended to 64-bits before it is added to the value in the RIP register for the target calculation. As with absolute offsets, the operand-size attribute determines the size of the target operand (16, 32, or 64 bits). In 64-bit mode the target operand will always be 64-bits because the operand size is forced to 64-bits for near branches. Far Calls in Real-Address or Virtual-8086 Mode. When executing a far call in realaddress or virtual-8086 mode, the processor pushes the current value of both the CS Vol. 2 3-87 INSTRUCTION SET REFERENCE, A-M and EIP registers on the stack for use as a return-instruction pointer. The processor then performs a "far branch" to the code segment and offset specified with the target operand for the called procedure. The target operand specifies an absolute far address either directly with a pointer (ptr16:16 or ptr16:32) or indirectly with a memory location (m16:16 or m16:32). With the pointer method, the segment and offset of the called procedure is encoded in the instruction using a 4-byte (16-bit operand size) or 6-byte (32-bit operand size) far address immediate. With the indirect method, the target operand specifies a memory location that contains a 4-byte (16-bit operand size) or 6-byte (32-bit operand size) far address. The operand-size attribute determines the size of the offset (16 or 32 bits) in the far address. The far address is loaded directly into the CS and EIP registers. If the operand-size attribute is 16, the upper two bytes of the EIP register are cleared. Far Calls in Protected Mode. When the processor is operating in protected mode, the CALL instruction can be used to perform the following types of far calls: Far call to the same privilege level Far call to a different privilege level (inter-privilege level call) Task switch (far call to another task) In protected mode, the processor always uses the segment selector part of the far address to access the corresponding descriptor in the GDT or LDT. The descriptor type (code segment, call gate, task gate, or TSS) and access rights determine the type of call operation to be performed. If the selected descriptor is for a code segment, a far call to a code segment at the same privilege level is performed. (If the selected code segment is at a different privilege level and the code segment is non-conforming, a general-protection exception is generated.) A far call to the same privilege level in protected mode is very similar to one carried out in real-address or virtual-8086 mode. The target operand specifies an absolute far address either directly with a pointer (ptr16:16 or ptr16:32) or indirectly with a memory location (m16:16 or m16:32). The operand- size attribute dete...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.
- Winter '11