ia-32_instruction-set-ref_a-m

The x87 fpu tag word x87 fpu opcode 16 bits the lower

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Unformatted text preview: e tag word is currently set as follows: R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 11 xx xx xx 11 11 11 11 Here, 11B indicates empty stack elements and "xx" indicates valid (00B), zero (01B), or special (10B). For this example, the FXSAVE instruction saves only the following 8 bits of information: R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 R0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Here, a 1 is saved for any valid, zero, or special tag, and a 0 is saved for any empty tag. The operation of the FXSAVE instruction differs from that of the FSAVE instruction, the as follows: FXSAVE instruction does not check for pending unmasked floating-point exceptions. (The FXSAVE operation in this regard is similar to the operation of the FNSAVE instruction). After the FXSAVE instruction has saved the state of the x87 FPU, MMX technology, XMM, and MXCSR registers, the processor retains the contents of the registers. Because of this behavior, the FXSAVE instruction cannot be used by an application program to pass a "clean" x87 FPU state to a procedure, since it Vol. 2 3-419 INSTRUCTION SET REFERENCE, A-M retains the current state. To clean the x87 FPU state, an application must explicitly execute an FINIT instruction after an FXSAVE instruction to reinitialize the x87 FPU state. The format of the memory image saved with the FXSAVE instruction is the same regardless of the current addressing mode (32-bit or 16-bit) and operating mode (protected, real address, or system management). This behavior differs from the FSAVE instructions, where the memory image format is different depending on the addressing mode and operating mode. Because of the different image formats, the memory image saved with the FXSAVE instruction cannot be restored correctly with the FRSTOR instruction, and likewise the state saved with the FSAVE instruction cannot be restored correctly with the FXRSTOR instruction. The FSAVE format for FTW can be recreated from the FTW valid bits and the stored 80-bit FP data (assuming the stored data was not the contents of MMX technology registers) using Table 3-50. Table 3-50. Recreating FSAVE Format Exponent all 1's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Exponent all 0's 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Fraction all 0's 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 J and M bits 0x 1x 00 10 0x 1x 00 10 1x 1x 00 10 FTW valid bit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Valid Special Valid Special Special Zero Special Special Special Special Special Empty x87 FTW Special 10 00 10 00 10 10 01 10 10 10 10 10 11 For all legal combinations above. The J-bit is defined to be the 1-bit binary integer to the left of the decimal place in the significand. The M-bit is defined to be the most significant bit of the fractional portion of the significand (i.e., the bit immediately to the right of the decimal place). When the M-bit is the most significant bit of the fractional portion of the significand, it must be 0 if the fraction is all 0's. IA-32e Mode Operation In compatibility sub-mode of IA-32e mode, legacy SSE registers, XMM0 through XMM7, are saved according to the legacy F...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.

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