ia-32_volume1_basic-arch

Ia-32_volume1_basic-arch

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Unformatted text preview: ress mode following power-up or a reset. System management mode (SMM) -- This mode provides an operating system or executive with a transparent mechanism for implementing platformspecific functions such as power management and system security. The processor enters SMM when the external SMM interrupt pin (SMI#) is activated or an SMI is received from the advanced programmable interrupt controller (APIC). In SMM, the processor switches to a separate address space while saving the basic context of the currently running program or task. SMM-specific code may then be executed transparently. Upon returning from SMM, the processor is placed back into its state prior to the system management interrupt. SMM was introduced with the Intel386TM SL and Intel486TM SL processors and became a standard IA-32 feature with the Pentium processor family. Vol. 1 3-1 BASIC EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT 3.1.1 Intel 64 Architecture Intel 64 architecture adds IA-32e mode. IA-32e mode has two sub-modes. These are: Compatibility mode (sub-mode of IA-32e mode) -- Compatibility mode permits most legacy 16-bit and 32-bit applications to run without re-compilation under a 64-bit operating system. For brevity, the compatibility sub-mode is referred to as compatibility mode in IA-32 architecture. The execution environment of compatibility mode is the same as described in Section 3.2. Compatibility mode also supports all of the privilege levels that are supported in 64-bit and protected modes. Legacy applications that run in Virtual 8086 mode or use hardware task management will not work in this mode. Compatibility mode is enabled by the operating system (OS) on a code segment basis. This means that a single 64-bit OS can support 64-bit applications running in 64-bit mode and support legacy 32-bit applications (not recompiled for 64-bits) running in compatibility mode. Compatibility mode is similar to 32-bit protected mode. Applications access only the first 4 GByte of linear-address space. Compatibility mode uses 16-bit and 32-bit address and operand sizes. Like protected mode, this mode allows applications to access physical memory greater than 4 GByte using PAE (Physical Address Extensions). 64-bit mode (sub-mode of IA-32e mode) -- This mode enables a 64-bit operating system to run applications written to access 64-bit linear address space. For brevity, the 64-bit sub-mode is referred to as 64-bit mode in IA-32 architecture. 64-bit mode extends the number of general purpose registers and SIMD extension registers from 8 to 16. General purpose registers are widened to 64 bits. The mode also introduces a new opcode prefix (REX) to access the register extensions. See Section 3.2.1 for a detailed description. 64-bit mode is enabled by the operating system on a code-segment basis. Its default address size is 64 bits and its default operand size is 32 bits. The default operand size can be overridden on an instruction-by-instruction basis using a REX opcode prefix in conjunction with an operan...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.

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