ia-32_volume1_basic-arch

64 bits representing one dp operand from mem to lower

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Unformatted text preview: generates an interrupt 16, to invoke the floating-point exception handler. To maintain compatibility with existing PC software, the native floating-point exception handling mode of the Intel 286 and 287 was not used in the IBM PC AT system design. Instead, the ERROR# pin on the Intel 286 was tied permanently high, and the ERROR# pin from the Intel 287 was routed to a second (cascaded) PIC. The resulting output of this PIC was routed through an exception handler and eventually caused an interrupt 2 (NMI interrupt). Here the NMI interrupt was shared with IBM PC AT's new parity checking feature. Interrupt 16 remained assigned to the BIOS video interrupt handler. The external hardware for the MS-DOS compatibility mode must prevent the Intel 286 processor from executing past the next x87 FPU instruction when an unmasked exception has been generated. To do this, it asserts the BUSY# signal into the Intel 286 when the ERROR# signal is asserted by the Intel 287. The Intel386 processor and its companion Intel 387 numeric coprocessor provided the same hardware mechanism for signaling and handling floating-point exceptions D-2 Vol. 1 GUIDELINES FOR WRITING X87 FPU EXCEPTION HANDLERS as the Intel 286 and 287 processors. And again, to maintain compatibility with existing MS-DOS software, basically the same MS-DOS compatibility floating-point exception handling mechanism that was used in the IBM PC AT was used in PCs based on the Intel386 processor. D.2 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MS-DOS COMPATIBILITY SUB-MODE IN THE INTEL486, PENTIUM, AND P6 PROCESSOR FAMILY, AND PENTIUM 4 PROCESSORS Beginning with the Intel486 processor, the IA-32 architecture provided a dedicated mechanism for enabling the MS-DOS compatibility mode for x87 FPU exceptions and for generating external x87 FPU-exception signals while operating in this mode. The following sections describe the implementation of the MS-DOS compatibility mode in the Intel486 and Pentium processors and in the P6 family and Pentium 4 processors. Also described is the recommended external hardware to support this mode of operation. D.2.1 MS-DOS Compatibility Sub-mode in the Intel486 and Pentium Processors In the Intel486 processor, several things were done to enhance and speed up the numeric coprocessor, now called the floating-point unit (x87 FPU). The most important enhancement was that the x87 FPU was included in the same chip as the processor, for increased speed in x87 FPU computations and reduced latency for x87 FPU exception handling. Also, for the first time, the MS-DOS compatibility mode was built into the chip design, with the addition of the NE bit in control register CR0 and the addition of the FERR# (Floating-point ERRor) and IGNNE# (IGNore Numeric Error) pins. The NE bit selects the native x87 FPU exception handling mode (NE = 1) or the MS-DOS compatibility mode (NE = 0). When native mode is selected, all signaling of floating-point exceptions is handled internally in the Intel486 chip, resulting in the genera...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.

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