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Unformatted text preview: s act on zero or more operands. Some operands are specified explicitly and others are implicit. The data for a source operand can be located in: the instruction itself (an immediate operand) a register a memory location an I/O port a register a memory location an I/O port When an instruction returns data to a destination operand, it can be returned to: 3.7.1 Immediate Operands Some instructions use data encoded in the instruction itself as a source operand. These operands are called immediate operands (or simply immediates). For 3-26 Vol. 1 BASIC EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT example, the following ADD instruction adds an immediate value of 14 to the contents of the EAX register: ADD EAX, 14 All arithmetic instructions (except the DIV and IDIV instructions) allow the source operand to be an immediate value. The maximum value allowed for an immediate operand varies among instructions, but can never be greater than the maximum value of an unsigned doubleword integer (232). 3.7.2 Register Operands Source and destination operands can be any of the following registers, depending on the instruction being executed: 32-bit general-purpose registers (EAX, EBX, ECX, EDX, ESI, EDI, ESP, or EBP) 16-bit general-purpose registers (AX, BX, CX, DX, SI, DI, SP, or BP) 8-bit general-purpose registers (AH, BH, CH, DH, AL, BL, CL, or DL) segment registers (CS, DS, SS, ES, FS, and GS) EFLAGS register x87 FPU registers (ST0 through ST7, status word, control word, tag word, data operand pointer, and instruction pointer) MMX registers (MM0 through MM7) XMM registers (XMM0 through XMM7) and the MXCSR register control registers (CR0, CR2, CR3, and CR4) and system table pointer registers (GDTR, LDTR, IDTR, and task register) debug registers (DR0, DR1, DR2, DR3, DR6, and DR7) MSR registers Some instructions (such as the DIV and MUL instructions) use quadword operands contained in a pair of 32-bit registers. Register pairs are represented with a colon separating them. For example, in the register pair EDX:EAX, EDX contains the high order bits and EAX contains the low order bits of a quadword operand. Several instructions (such as the PUSHFD and POPFD instructions) are provided to load and store the contents of the EFLAGS register or to set or clear individual flags in this register. Other instructions (such as the Jcc instructions) use the state of the status flags in the EFLAGS register as condition codes for branching or other decision making operations. The processor contains a selection of system registers that are used to control memory management, interrupt and exception handling, task management, processor management, and debugging activities. Some of these system registers are accessible by an application program, the operating system, or the executive through a set of system instructions. When accessing a system register with a system instruction, the register is generally an implied operand of the instruction. Vol. 1 3-27 BASIC EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT 188.8.131.52 Register Operand...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.
- Winter '11