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Unformatted text preview: determine if access to a particular I/O port is allowed. Each bit in the map corresponds to an I/O port byte address. For example, the control bit for I/O port address 29H in the I/O address space is found at bit position 1 of the sixth byte in the bit map. Before granting I/O access, the processor tests all the bits corresponding to the I/O port being addressed. For a doubleword access, for example, the processors tests the four bits corresponding to the four adjacent 8-bit port addresses. If any tested bit is set, a general-protection exception (#GP) is signaled. If all tested bits are clear, the I/O operation is allowed to proceed. Because I/O port addresses are not necessarily aligned to word and doubleword boundaries, the processor reads two bytes from the I/O permission bit map for every access to an I/O port. To prevent exceptions from being generated when the ports with the highest addresses are accessed, an extra byte needs to included in the TSS immediately after the table. This byte must have all of its bits set, and it must be within the segment limit. It is not necessary for the I/O permission bit map to represent all the I/O addresses. I/O addresses not spanned by the map are treated as if they had set bits in the map. For example, if the TSS segment limit is 10 bytes past the bit-map base address, the map has 11 bytes and the first 80 I/O ports are mapped. Higher addresses in the I/O address space generate exceptions. 13-6 Vol. 1 INPUT/OUTPUT If the I/O bit map base address is greater than or equal to the TSS segment limit, there is no I/O permission map, and all I/O instructions generate exceptions when the CPL is greater than the current IOPL. 13.6 ORDERING I/O When controlling I/O devices it is often important that memory and I/O operations be carried out in precisely the order programmed. For example, a program may write a command to an I/O port, then read the status of the I/O device from another I/O port. It is important that the status returned be the status of the device after it receives the command, not before. When using memory-mapped I/O, caution should be taken to avoid situations in which the programmed order is not preserved by the processor. To optimize performance, the processor allows cacheable memory reads to be reordered ahead of buffered writes in most situations. Internally, processor reads (cache hits) can be reordered around buffered writes. When using memory-mapped I/O, therefore, is possible that an I/O read might be performed before the memory write of a previous instruction. The recommended method of enforcing program ordering of memorymapped I/O accesses with the Pentium 4, Intel Xeon, and P6 family processors is to use the MTRRs to make the memory mapped I/O address space uncacheable; for the Pentium and Intel486 processors, either the #KEN pin or the PCD flags can be used for this purpose (see Section 13.3.1, "Memory-Mapped I/O"). When the target of a read or write is in an uncacheable region of...
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- Winter '11