ia-32_volume1_basic-arch

Virtualization technology intel core

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Unformatted text preview: None Note 3 Note 3 L1: 8 KB L1:16 KB L1: 16 KB L2: 256 KB or 512 KB Vol. 1 2-25 INTEL 64 AND IA-32 ARCHITECTURES Table 2-3. Key Features of Previous Generations of IA-32 Processors Pentium II Processor 1997 266 MHz 7M 32 GP 80 FPU 64 MMX 32 GP 80 FPU 64 MMX 128 XMM 32 GP 80 FPU 64 MMX 128 XMM 32 GP 80 FPU 64 MMX 128 XMM 32 GP 80 FPU 64 MMX 128 XMM 32 GP 80 FPU 64 MMX 128 XMM 32 GP 80 FPU 64 MMX 128 XMM 32 GP 80 FPU 64 MMX 128 XMM 64 64 GB L1: 32 KB L2: 256 KB or 512 KB L1: 32 KB L2: 512 KB Pentium III Processor 1999 500 MHz 8.2 M 64 64 GB Pentium III and Pentium III Xeon Processors 1999 700 MHz 28 M 64 64 GB L1: 32 KB L2: 256 KB Pentium 4 Processor 2000 1.50 GHz, Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture 1.70 GHz, Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture 2.20 GHz, Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, HyperThreading Technology 1.60 GHz, Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture 3.40 GHz, Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, HyperThreading Technology 42 M 64 64 GB 12K op Execution Trace Cache; L1: 8KB L2: 256 KB 12K op Execution Trace Cache; L1: 8KB L2: 512KB 12K op Execution Trace Cache; L1: 8KB L2: 512KB L1: 64KB L2: 1 MB Intel Xeon Processor 2001 42 M 64 64 GB Intel Xeon Processor 2002 55 M 64 64 GB Pentium M Processor 2003 77 M 64 4 GB Intel Pentium 4 Processor Supporting HyperThreading Technology at 90 nm process 2004 125 M 64 64 GB 12K op Execution Trace Cache; L1: 16KB L2: 1 MB NOTE: 1. The register size and external data bus size are given in bits. Note also that each 32-bit generalpurpose (GP) registers can be addressed as an 8- or a 16-bit data registers in all of the processors. 2. Internal data paths are 2 to 4 times wider than the external data bus for each processor. 2-26 Vol. 1 CHAPTER 3 BASIC EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT This chapter describes the basic execution environment of an Intel 64 or IA-32 processor as seen by assembly-language programmers. It describes how the processor executes instructions and how it stores and manipulates data. The execution environment described here includes memory (the address space), generalpurpose data registers, segment registers, the flag register, and the instruction pointer register. 3.1 MODES OF OPERATION The IA-32 architecture supports three basic operating modes: protected mode, realaddress mode, and system management mode. The operating mode determines which instructions and architectural features are accessible: Protected mode -- This mode is the native state of the processor. Among the capabilities of protected mode is the ability to directly execute "real-address mode" 8086 software in a protected, multi-tasking environment. This feature is called virtual-8086 mode, although it is not actually a processor mode. Virtual8086 mode is actually a protected mode attribute that can be enabled for any task. Real-address mode -- This mode implements the programming environment of the Intel 8086 processor with extensions (such as the ability to switch to protected or system management mode). The processor is placed in real-add...
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