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Unformatted text preview: s the singleinstruction, multiple-data (SIMD) execution model to perform parallel computations on packed integer data contained in 64-bit registers. See Section 2.2.4, "SIMD Instructions." 2.1.6 The P6 Family of Processors (1995-1999) The P6 family of processors was based on a superscalar microarchitecture that set new performance standards; see also Section 2.2.1, "P6 Family Microarchitecture." One of the goals in the design of the P6 family microarchitecture was to exceed the performance of the Pentium processor significantly while using the same 0.6micrometer, four-layer, metal BICMOS manufacturing process. Members of this family include the following: The Intel Pentium Pro processor is three-way superscalar. Using parallel processing techniques, the processor is able on average to decode, dispatch, and complete execution of (retire) three instructions per clock cycle. The Pentium Pro introduced the dynamic execution (micro-data flow analysis, out-of-order execution, superior branch prediction, and speculative execution) in a superscalar implementation. The processor was further enhanced by its caches. It has the same two on-chip 8-KByte 1st-Level caches as the Pentium processor and an additional 256-KByte Level 2 cache in the same package as the processor. The Intel Pentium II processor added Intel MMX technology to the P6 family processors along with new packaging and several hardware enhancements. The processor core is packaged in the single edge contact cartridge (SECC). The Level l data and instruction caches were enlarged to 16 KBytes each, and Level 2 cache sizes of 256 KBytes, 512 KBytes, and 1 MByte are supported. A half-clock speed backside bus connects the Level 2 cache to the processor. Multiple low-power states such as AutoHALT, Stop-Grant, Sleep, and Deep Sleep are supported to conserve power when idling. The Pentium II Xeon processor combined the premium characteristics of previous generations of Intel processors. This includes: 4-way, 8-way (and up) scalability and a 2 MByte 2nd-Level cache running on a full-clock speed backside bus. Vol. 1 2-3 INTEL 64 AND IA-32 ARCHITECTURES The Intel Celeron processor family focused on the value PC market segment. Its introduction offers an integrated 128 KBytes of Level 2 cache and a plastic pin grid array (P.P.G.A.) form factor to lower system design cost. The Intel Pentium III processor introduced the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) to the IA-32 architecture. SSE extensions expand the SIMD execution model introduced with the Intel MMX technology by providing a new set of 128-bit registers and the ability to perform SIMD operations on packed single-precision floating-point values. See Section 2.2.4, "SIMD Instructions." The Pentium III Xeon processor extended the performance levels of the IA-32 processors with the enhancement of a full-speed, on-die, and Advanced Transfer Cache. 2.1.7 The Intel Pentium 4 Processor Family (2000-2006) The Intel Pentium 4 processor f...
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- Winter '11