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Unformatted text preview: and specification updates. See also: The data sheet for a particular Intel 64 or IA-32 processor The specification update for a particular Intel 64 or IA-32 processor Intel C++ Compiler documentation and online help Intel Fortran Compiler documentation and online help Intel VTuneTM Performance Analyzer documentation and online help Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual (in five volumes) Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Optimization Reference Manual Intel Processor Identification with the CPUID Instruction, AP-485 Developing Multi-threaded Applications: A Platform Consistent Approach Using Spin-Loops on Intel Pentium 4 Processor and Intel Xeon Processor MP Software network link: http://softwarecommunity.intel.com/isn/home/ More relevant links are: Vol. 1 1-9 ABOUT THIS MANUAL Developer centers: http://www3.intel.com/cd/ids/developer/asmo-na/eng/dc/index.htm Processor support general link: http://www.intel.com/support/processors/ Software products and packages: http://www3.intel.com/cd/software/products/asmo-na/eng/index.htm Intel 64 and IA-32 processor manuals (printed or PDF downloads): http://developer.intel.com/design/pentium4/manuals/index_new.htm Hyper-Threading Technology (HT Technology): http://developer.intel.com/technology/hyperthread/ 1-10 Vol. 1 CHAPTER 2 INTEL 64 AND IA-32 ARCHITECTURES The exponential growth of computing power and ownership has made the computer one of the most important forces shaping business and society. Intel 64 and IA-32 architectures have been at the forefront of the computer revolution and is today the preferred computer architecture, as measured by computers in use and the total computing power available in the world. 2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF INTEL 64 AND IA-32 ARCHITECTURE The following sections provide a summary of the major technical evolutions from IA-32 to Intel 64 architecture: starting from the Intel 8086 processor to the latest Intel Core 2 Duo and Intel Xeon processor 5100 series. Object code created for processors released as early as 1978 still executes on the latest processors in the Intel 64 and IA-32 architecture families. 2.1.1 16-bit Processors and Segmentation (1978) The IA-32 architecture family was preceded by 16-bit processors, the 8086 and 8088. The 8086 has 16-bit registers and a 16-bit external data bus, with 20-bit addressing giving a 1-MByte address space. The 8088 is similar to the 8086 except it has an 8-bit external data bus. The 8086/8088 introduced segmentation to the IA-32 architecture. With segmentation, a 16-bit segment register contains a pointer to a memory segment of up to 64 KBytes. Using four segment registers at a time, 8086/8088 processors are able to address up to 256 KBytes without switching between segments. The 20-bit addresses that can be formed using a segment register and an additional 16-bit pointer provide a total address range of 1 MByte. 2.1.2 The Intel 286 Processor (1982) The Intel 286 processor introduced protected mode operation into the I...
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