ia-32_volume1_basic-arch

Exceptions received while the kernel owns the x87 fpu

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Unformatted text preview: xtensions state but does not clear it. Operating systems that use FXSAVE to save the x87 FPU state before making it available for another thread (e.g., during thread switch time) should take precautions not to pass a "dirty" x87 FPU to another application. D.4 DIFFERENCES FOR HANDLERS USING NATIVE MODE The 8087 has an INT pin which it asserts when an unmasked exception occurs. But there is no interrupt input pin in the 8086 or 8088 dedicated to its attachment, nor an interrupt vector number in the 8086 or 8088 specific for an x87 FPU error assertion. Beginning with the Intel 286 and Intel 287 hardware, a connection was dedicated to support the x87 FPU exception and interrupt vector 16 was assigned to it. D.4.1 Origin with the Intel 286 and Intel 287, and Intel386 and Intel 387 Processors The Intel 286 and Intel 287, and Intel386 and Intel 387 processor/coprocessor pairs are each provided with ERROR# pins that are recommended to be connected between the processor and x87 FPU. If this is done, when an unmasked x87 FPU exception occurs, the x87 FPU records the exception, and asserts its ERROR# pin. The processor recognizes this active condition of the ERROR# status line immediately before execution of the next WAIT or x87 FPU instruction (except for the no-wait type) in its instruction stream, and branches to the routine at interrupt vector 16. Thus an x87 FPU exception will be handled before any other x87 FPU instruction (after the one causing the error) is executed (except for no-wait instructions, which will be executed without triggering the x87 FPU exception interrupt, but it will remain pending). Vol. 1 D-29 GUIDELINES FOR WRITING X87 FPU EXCEPTION HANDLERS Using the dedicated INT 16 for x87 FPU exception handling is referred to as the native mode. It is the simplest approach, and the one recommended most highly by Intel. D.4.2 Changes with Intel486, Pentium and Pentium Pro Processors with CR0.NE[bit 5] = 1 With these latest three generations of the IA-32 architecture, more enhancements and speedup features have been added to the corresponding x87 FPUs. Also, the x87 FPU is now built into the same chip as the processor, which allows further increases in the speed at which the x87 FPU can operate as part of the integrated system. This also means that the native mode of x87 FPU exception handling, selected by setting bit NE of register CR0 to 1, is now entirely internal. If an unmasked exception occurs during an x87 FPU instruction, the x87 FPU records the exception internally, and triggers the exception handler through interrupt 16 immediately before execution of the next WAIT or x87 FPU instruction (except for no-wait instructions, which will be executed as described in Section D.4.1, "Origin with the Intel 286 and Intel 287, and Intel386 and Intel 387 Processors"). An unmasked numerical exception causes the FERR# output to be activated even with NE = 1, and at exactly the same point in the program flow as it would have been...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.

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