ia-32_volume1_basic-arch

First doubleword in the display because stacks grow

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Unformatted text preview: procedure C or procedure D. 4. Procedure C can access only the variables of procedure A and MAIN. Procedure C cannot access the variables of procedure B or procedure D. 5. Procedure D can access the variables of procedure C, procedure A, and MAIN. Procedure D cannot access the variables of procedure B. In Figure 6-7, an ENTER instruction at the beginning of the MAIN procedure creates three doublewords of dynamic storage for MAIN, but copies no pointers from other stack frames. The first doubleword in the display holds a copy of the last value in the EBP register before the ENTER instruction was executed. The second doubleword holds a copy of the contents of the EBP register following the ENTER instruction. After the instruction is executed, the EBP register points to the first doubleword pushed on the stack, and the ESP register points to the last doubleword in the stack frame. When MAIN calls procedure A, the ENTER instruction creates a new display (see Figure 6-8). The first doubleword is the last value held in MAIN's EBP register. The second doubleword is a pointer to MAIN's stack frame which is copied from the second doubleword in MAIN's display. This happens to be another copy of the last value held in MAIN's EBP register. Procedure A can access variables in MAIN because MAIN is at level 1. 6-22 Vol. 1 PROCEDURE CALLS, INTERRUPTS, AND EXCEPTIONS Therefore the base address for the dynamic storage used in MAIN is the current address in the EBP register, plus four bytes to account for the saved contents of MAIN's EBP register. All dynamic variables for MAIN are at fixed, positive offsets from this value. Old EBP Display Main's EBP EBP Dynamic Storage ESP Figure 6-7. Stack Frame After Entering the MAIN Procedure Old EBP Main's EBP Display Main's EBP Main's EBP Procedure A's EBP EBP Dynamic Storage ESP Figure 6-8. Stack Frame After Entering Procedure A When procedure A calls procedure B, the ENTER instruction creates a new display (see Figure 6-9). The first doubleword holds a copy of the last value in procedure A's EBP register. The second and third doublewords are copies of the two stack frame pointers in procedure A's display. Procedure B can access variables in procedure A and MAIN by using the stack frame pointers in its display. Vol. 1 6-23 PROCEDURE CALLS, INTERRUPTS, AND EXCEPTIONS When procedure B calls procedure C, the ENTER instruction creates a new display for procedure C (see Figure 6-10). The first doubleword holds a copy of the last value in procedure B's EBP register. This is used by the LEAVE instruction to restore procedure B's stack frame. The second and third doublewords are copies of the two stack frame pointers in procedure A's display. If procedure C were at the next deeper lexical level from procedure B, a fourth doubleword would be copied, which would be the stack frame pointer to procedure B's local variables. Note that procedure B and procedure C are at the same level, so procedure C is not intended to access procedure...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.

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