ia-32_volume1_basic-arch

New data types and to handle mmx state management

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Unformatted text preview: 4 signed word integers in a second source operand and stores 4 word integer results in a destination operand. This SIMD technique speeds up software performance by allowing the same operation to be carried out on multiple data elements in parallel. MMX technology supports parallel 9-4 Vol. 1 PROGRAMMING WITH INTEL MMXTM TECHNOLOGY operations on byte, word, and doubleword data elements when contained in MMX registers. The SIMD execution model supported in the MMX technology directly addresses the needs of modern media, communications, and graphics applications, which often use sophisticated algorithms that perform the same operations on a large number of small data types (bytes, words, and doublewords). For example, most audio data is represented in 16-bit (word) quantities. The MMX instructions can operate on 4 words simultaneously with one instruction. Video and graphics information is commonly represented as palletized 8-bit (byte) quantities. In Figure 9-4, one MMX instruction operates on 8 bytes simultaneously. Source 1 X3 X2 X1 X0 Source 2 Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0 OP OP OP OP Destination X3 OP Y3 X2 OP Y2 X1 OP Y1 X0 OP Y0 Figure 9-4. SIMD Execution Model 9.3 SATURATION AND WRAPAROUND MODES When performing integer arithmetic, an operation may result in an out-of-range condition, where the true result cannot be represented in the destination format. For example, when performing arithmetic on signed word integers, positive overflow can occur when the true signed result is larger than 16 bits. The MMX technology provides three ways of handling out-of-range conditions: Wraparound arithmetic -- With wraparound arithmetic, a true out-of-range result is truncated (that is, the carry or overflow bit is ignored and only the least significant bits of the result are returned to the destination). Wraparound arithmetic is suitable for applications that control the range of operands to prevent out-of-range results. If the range of operands is not controlled, however, wraparound arithmetic can lead to large errors. For example, adding two large signed numbers can cause positive overflow and produce a negative result. Signed saturation arithmetic -- With signed saturation arithmetic, out-ofrange results are limited to the representable range of signed integers for the integer size being operated on (see Table 9-1). For example, if positive overflow occurs when operating on signed word integers, the result is "saturated" to Vol. 1 9-5 PROGRAMMING WITH INTEL MMXTM TECHNOLOGY 7FFFH, which is the largest positive integer that can be represented in 16 bits; if negative overflow occurs, the result is saturated to 8000H. Unsigned saturation arithmetic -- With unsigned saturation arithmetic, outof-range results are limited to the representable range of unsigned integers for the integer size. So, positive overflow when operating on unsigned byte integers results in FFH being returned and negative overflow results in 00H being returned. . Table 9-1. Data Range Limits for...
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