Or loops that transfer program control to another

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Unformatted text preview: erate the same as the LOOP instruction, except that they also test the ZF flag. If the count in the ECX register is not zero and the ZF flag is set, program control is transferred to the destination operand. When the count reaches zero or the ZF flag is clear, the loop is terminated by transferring program control to the instruction immediately following the LOOPE/LOOPZ instruction. Vol. 1 7-23 PROGRAMMING WITH GENERAL-PURPOSE INSTRUCTIONS The LOOPNE and LOOPNZ instructions (mnemonics for the same instruction) operate the same as the LOOPE/LOOPPZ instructions, except that they terminate the loop if the ZF flag is set. Jump if zero instructions -- The JECXZ (jump if ECX zero) instruction jumps to the location specified in the destination operand if the ECX register contains the value zero. This instruction can be used in combination with a loop instruction (LOOP, LOOPE, LOOPZ, LOOPNE, or LOOPNZ) to test the ECX register prior to beginning a loop. As described in "Loop instructions on page 7-23, the loop instructions decrement the contents of the ECX register before testing for zero. If the value in the ECX register is zero initially, it will be decremented to FFFFFFFFH on the first loop instruction, causing the loop to be executed 232 times. To prevent this problem, a JECXZ instruction can be inserted at the beginning of the code block for the loop, causing a jump out the loop if the EAX register count is initially zero. When used with repeated string scan and compare instructions, the JECXZ instruction can determine whether the loop terminated because the count reached zero or because the scan or compare conditions were satisfied. The JCXZ (jump if CX is zero) instruction operates the same as the JECXZ instruction when the 16-bit address-size attribute is used. Here, the CX register is tested for zero. Control Transfer Instructions in 64-Bit Mode In 64-bit mode, the operand size for all near branches (CALL, RET, JCC, JCXZ, JMP, and LOOP) is forced to 64 bits. The listed instructions update the 64-bit RIP without need for a REX operand-size prefix. Near branches in the following operations are forced to 64-bits (regardless of operand size prefixes): Truncation of the size of the instruction pointer Size of a stack pop or push, due to CALL or RET Size of a stack-pointer increment or decrement, due to CALL or RET Indirect-branch operand size Note that the displacement field for relative branches is still limited to 32 bits and the address size for near branches is not forced. Address size determines the register size (CX/ECX/RCX) used for JCXZ and LOOP. It also impacts the address calculation for memory indirect branches. Addresses size is 64 bits by default, although it can be over-ridden to 32 bits (using a prefix). Software Interrupt Instructions The INT n (software interrupt), INTO (interrupt on overflow), and BOUND (detect value out of range) instructions allow a program to explicitly raise a specified interrupt or exception, which i...
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