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Unformatted text preview: hat Support Quad-Core Vol. 1 2-21 INTEL 64 AND IA-32 ARCHITECTURES 2.2.7 Intel 64 Architecture Intel 64 architecture increases the linear address space for software to 64 bits and supports physical address space up to 40 bits. The technology also introduces a new operating mode referred to as IA-32e mode. IA-32e mode operates in one of two sub-modes: (1) compatibility mode enables a 64-bit operating system to run most legacy 32-bit software unmodified, (2) 64-bit mode enables a 64-bit operating system to run applications written to access 64-bit address space. In the 64-bit mode, applications may access: 64-bit flat linear addressing 8 additional general-purpose registers (GPRs) 8 additional registers for streaming SIMD extensions (SSE, SSE2, SSE3 and SSSE3) 64-bit-wide GPRs and instruction pointers uniform byte-register addressing fast interrupt-prioritization mechanism a new instruction-pointer relative-addressing mode An Intel 64 architecture processor supports existing IA-32 software because it is able to run all non-64-bit legacy modes supported by IA-32 architecture. Most existing IA-32 applications also run in compatibility mode. 2.2.8 Intel Virtualization Technology (Intel VT) Intel Virtualization Technology for Intel 64 and IA-32 architectures provide extensions that support virtualization. The extensions are referred to as Virtual Machine Extensions (VMX). An Intel 64 or IA-32 platform with VMX can function as multiple virtual systems (or virtual machines). Each virtual machine can run operating systems and applications in separate partitions. VMX also provides programming interface for a new layer of system software (called the Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)) used to manage the operation of virtual machines. Information on VMX and on the programming of VMMs is in Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual, Volume 3B. Chapter 5, "VMX Instruction Reference," in the Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual, Volume 2B, provides information on VMX instructions. 2-22 Vol. 1 INTEL 64 AND IA-32 ARCHITECTURES 2.3 INTEL 64 AND IA-32 PROCESSOR GENERATIONS In the mid-1960s, Intel cofounder and Chairman Emeritus Gordon Moore had this observation: "the number of transistors that would be incorporated on a silicon die would double every 18 months for the next several years." Over the past three and half decades, this prediction known as "Moore's Law" has continued to hold true. The computing power and the complexity (or roughly, the number of transistors per processor) of Intel architecture processors has grown in close relation to Moore's law. By taking advantage of new process technology and new microarchitecture designs, each new generation of IA-32 processors has demonstrated frequency-scaling headroom and new performance levels over the previous generation processors. The key features of the Intel Pentium 4 processor, Intel Xeon processor, Intel Xeon processor MP, Pentium III proces...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.
- Winter '11