ia-32_volume1_basic-arch

The processor to maskable interrupt requests set to

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Unformatted text preview: 2 bits of RFLAGS register is reserved. The lower 32 bits of RFLAGS is the same as EFLAGS. 3.5 INSTRUCTION POINTER The instruction pointer (EIP) register contains the offset in the current code segment for the next instruction to be executed. It is advanced from one instruction boundary to the next in straight-line code or it is moved ahead or backwards by a number of instructions when executing JMP, Jcc, CALL, RET, and IRET instructions. The EIP register cannot be accessed directly by software; it is controlled implicitly by control-transfer instructions (such as JMP, Jcc, CALL, and RET), interrupts, and exceptions. The only way to read the EIP register is to execute a CALL instruction and then read the value of the return instruction pointer from the procedure stack. The EIP register can be loaded indirectly by modifying the value of a return instruction pointer on the procedure stack and executing a return instruction (RET or IRET). See Section 6.2.4.2, "Return Instruction Pointer." All IA-32 processors prefetch instructions. Because of instruction prefetching, an instruction address read from the bus during an instruction load does not match the value in the EIP register. Even though different processor generations use different prefetching mechanisms, the function of the EIP register to direct program flow remains fully compatible with all software written to run on IA-32 processors. 3.5.1 Instruction Pointer in 64-Bit Mode In 64-bit mode, the RIP register becomes the instruction pointer. This register holds the 64-bit offset of the next instruction to be executed. 64-bit mode also supports a technique called RIP-relative addressing. Using this technique, the effective address is determined by adding a displacement to the RIP of the next instruction. 3.6 OPERAND-SIZE AND ADDRESS-SIZE ATTRIBUTES When the processor is executing in protected mode, every code segment has a default operand-size attribute and address-size attribute. These attributes are selected with the D (default size) flag in the segment descriptor for the code segment (see Chapter 3, "Protected-Mode Memory Management," in the Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual, Volume 3A). When the D flag is set, the 32-bit operand-size and address-size attributes are selected; when the flag is clear, the 16-bit size attributes are selected. When the processor is executing in realaddress mode, virtual-8086 mode, or SMM, the default operand-size and addresssize attributes are always 16 bits. 3-24 Vol. 1 BASIC EXECUTION ENVIRONMENT The operand-size attribute selects the size of operands. When the 16-bit operandsize attribute is in force, operands can generally be either 8 bits or 16 bits, and when the 32-bit operand-size attribute is in force, operands can generally be 8 bits or 32 bits. The address-size attribute selects the sizes of addresses used to address memory: 16 bits or 32 bits. When the 16-bit address-size attribute is in force, segment offsets and d...
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