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Unformatted text preview: ollowing set: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F. Base 2 (binary) numbers are represented by a string of 1s and 0s, sometimes followed by the character B (for example, 1010B). The "B" designation is only used in situations where confusion as to the type of number might arise. 1.3.4 Segmented Addressing The processor uses byte addressing. This means memory is organized and accessed as a sequence of bytes. Whether one or more bytes are being accessed, a byte address is used to locate the byte or bytes memory. The range of memory that can be addressed is called an address space. The processor also supports segmented addressing. This is a form of addressing where a program may have many independent address spaces, called segments. 1-6 Vol. 1 ABOUT THIS MANUAL For example, a program can keep its code (instructions) and stack in separate segments. Code addresses would always refer to the code space, and stack addresses would always refer to the stack space. The following notation is used to specify a byte address within a segment: Segment-register:Byte-address For example, the following segment address identifies the byte at address FF79H in the segment pointed by the DS register: DS:FF79H The following segment address identifies an instruction address in the code segment. The CS register points to the code segment and the EIP register contains the address of the instruction. CS:EIP 1.3.5 A New Syntax for CPUID, CR, and MSR Values Obtain feature flags, status, and system information by using the CPUID instruction, by checking control register bits, and by reading model-specific registers. We are moving toward a new syntax to represent this information. See Figure 1-2. Vol. 1 1-7 ABOUT THIS MANUAL Figure 1-2. Syntax for CPUID, CR, and MSR Data Presentation 1-8 Vol. 1 ABOUT THIS MANUAL 1.3.6 Exceptions An exception is an event that typically occurs when an instruction causes an error. For example, an attempt to divide by zero generates an exception. However, some exceptions, such as breakpoints, occur under other conditions. Some types of exceptions may provide error codes. An error code reports additional information about the error. An example of the notation used to show an exception and error code is shown below: #PF(fault code) This example refers to a page-fault exception under conditions where an error code naming a type of fault is reported. Under some conditions, exceptions that produce error codes may not be able to report an accurate code. In this case, the error code is zero, as shown below for a general-protection exception: #GP(0) 1.4 RELATED LITERATURE Literature related to Intel 64 and IA-32 processors is listed on-line at: http://developer.intel.com/products/processor/index.htm Some of the documents listed at this web site can be viewed on-line; others can be ordered. The literature available is listed by Intel processor and then by the following literature types: applications notes, data sheets, manuals, papers,...
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2013 for the course CPE 103 taught by Professor Watlins during the Winter '11 term at Mississippi State.

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