The stack pointer is incremented or decremented in 32

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Unformatted text preview: lling procedure then resumes. The processor does not keep track of the location of the return-instruction pointer. It is thus up to the programmer to insure that stack pointer is pointing to the returninstruction pointer on the stack, prior to issuing a RET instruction. A common way to reset the stack pointer to the point to the return-instruction pointer is to move the contents of the EBP register into the ESP register. If the EBP register is loaded with the stack pointer immediately following a procedure call, it should point to the return instruction pointer on the stack. The processor does not require that the return instruction pointer point back to the calling procedure. Prior to executing the RET instruction, the return instruction pointer can be manipulated in software to point to any address in the current code segment (near return) or another code segment (far return). Performing such an operation, however, should be undertaken very cautiously, using only well defined code entry points. 6-4 Vol. 1 PROCEDURE CALLS, INTERRUPTS, AND EXCEPTIONS 6.2.5 Stack Behavior in 64-Bit Mode In 64-bit mode, address calculations that reference SS segments are treated as if the segment base is zero. Fields (base, limit, and attribute) in segment descriptor registers are ignored. SS DPL is modified such that it is always equal to CPL. This will be true even if it is the only field in the SS descriptor that is modified. Registers E(SP), E(IP) and E(BP) are promoted to 64-bits and are re-named RSP, RIP, and RBP respectively. Some forms of segment load instructions are invalid (for example, LDS, POP ES). PUSH/POP instructions increment/decrement the stack using a 64-bit width. When the contents of a segment register is pushed onto 64-bit stack, the pointer is automatically aligned to 64 bits (as with a stack that has a 32-bit width). 6.3 CALLING PROCEDURES USING CALL AND RET The CALL instruction allows control transfers to procedures within the current code segment (near call) and in a different code segment (far call). Near calls usually provide access to local procedures within the currently running program or task. Far calls are usually used to access operating system procedures or procedures in a different task. See "CALL--Call Procedure" in Chapter 3, "Instruction Set Reference, A-M," of the Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual, Volume 2A, for a detailed description of the CALL instruction. The RET instruction also allows near and far returns to match the near and far versions of the CALL instruction. In addition, the RET instruction allows a program to increment the stack pointer on a return to release parameters from the stack. The number of bytes released from the stack is determined by an optional argument (n) to the RET instruction. See "RET--Return from Procedure" in Chapter 4, "Instruction Set Reference, N-Z," of the Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual, Volume 2...
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