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Unformatted text preview: ts in fer<lizers N P K •  "N- P- K" "5- 15- 5" = % by weight of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium •  Ammonium Sulfate also common in fer<lizers •  Inorganic fer<lizers - provide nutrients in readily available form (ions); formulas can be precisely controlled for specific crops •  Organic fer<lizers - e.g. manure, compost; bePer for soil composi<on (less leaching) but minerals not immediately available for plants soil pH take up some nutrients •  leaves •  op<mal for plant growth ~6.5 •  but some crops (e.g. blueberries) grow best at more acidic pH (~4.0) •  rainfall; organic maPer decomposi<on - decrease soil pH (acidifica<on) •  applica<on of calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, or magnesium carbonate increases soil pH –  (used to reverse acidifica<on) –  e.g. lime [insert pic of lime bag]; removes H+ ions and increases concentra<on of available calcium •  if a crop needs a more acidic soil - Sulfur can be added –  soil bacteria convert this to sulfuric acid bePer than roots •  copper, iron, manganese •  these are s<ll commonly in soil fer<lizers but solu<ons can be sprayed directly onto leaves hPp:// hPp:// hPp:// ph- level hPp:// 6/Environments/ac<vi<es/ delgap/images_sized/phfield2001.GIF plants and soil •  soil forma<on depends on local condi<ons: –  plants growing there –  mechanical weathering of rock –  what type of parent rock hPp:// soil%20photo.jpg •  plant liPer becomes humus - dark material with fine par<cles, by the ac<on of fungi and bacteria in the soil; rich in minerals; traps water and oxygen that plant roots can then absorb •  plants affect local soil pH by either exre<ng H+ or excre<ng OH- or HCO3- ions –  plant roots can also excrete organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid) to decrease the pH of soil immediately surrounding them (makes it easier to uptake Fe3+ and other ions) How do plants get Nitrogen? •  N2 in atmosphere extremely stable –  (triple bond; hard to break) •  Nitrogen fixing bacteria –  (170 million metric tons N fixed per year; human industry fixes 80 million per year) •  ocean: cyanobacteria plus ot...
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2013 for the course BIO 201 taught by Professor True during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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