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Bio%20201%20S12%20Lect%2013%20%28True%29%20v3

Bio%20201%20S12%20Lect%2013%20%28True%29%20v3 - Biology in...

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Biology’in’the’News’ (see’folder’on’BB)’ "bird’brain"’no’longer’means’what’it’used’ to’mean’ African’Grey’parrots’have’long’been’ known’to’be’able’to’mimic’human’speech’ very’well’ Current’research’is’trying’to’Fgure’out’ what’they’understand’in’this’speech’ Irene’Pepperberg,’a’researcher’in’this’ area,’reports’that’they’can’understand:’ color,’material,’shape,’number,’relaEve’ size,’similarity,’di±erence,’and’absence’of’ objects’ she’concludes’that’they’have’the’social’ skills’of’a’2-year’old’human’and’the’ intelligence’of’a’5-year’old’human’ when’she’asks’a’parrot’what’shape’a’ square’is,’they’say’"four’corner"’-’even’if’ the’square’is’parEally’obscured’by’a’circle;’ their’names’for’shapes’are’descripEve,’ which’may’be’adapEve’ research’on’how’she’communicates’with’ her’parrots’has’also’been’informaEve’to’ specialists’working’on’communicaEon’ skills’of’auEsEc’children’ h²p://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/ science_naEon/talkanimals.jsp? WT.mc_id=USNS³_196’ h²p://www.avianweb.com/images/birds/ parrots/AfricanGreys/monty2.jpg’
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mean = 66.1 st. dev. = 18.8
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At the end of the semester, we use a "curve" to determine the letter grades from the final numerical scores (including extra credits) highest total final numerical score = 100 (this is also the highest possible score on any of the exams) The mean is usually a C+ or a B- To get a clear A, generally need mid 90s or higher.
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parasiEc’plants’ most’are’autotrophs’but’some’ are’no’longer’capable’of’ adequate’photosynthesis’and’are’ heterotrophs’ most’famous’example:’mistletoe’ parasiEzes’other’plants’(trees)’ using’haustoria’organs’that’insert’ into’host’plant’Essues’and’absorb’ nutrients’ dwarf’mistletoe’( Arceuthobium americanum )’-’pest’to’lumber’ industry’in’US’ hNp:// www.parasiEcplants.si u.edu/Viscaceae/ images/AM±.JP±G’
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transpiraEon’ when’plants±’stomata’are’ open’for’CO2-O2’exchange,’ they’transpire’ water’is’lost’ this’is’vital’for’the’acEon’of’ the’water’through’the’ xylem’to’bring’nutrients’up’ from’the’roots’ cools’plants’–’analogous’to’ sweaEng’in’mammals’ (evaporaEve’cooling)’ water’loss’is’costly’in’hot/ dry’environments’ http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/SCT112/lecture3_print.htm a large tree will transpire 10s of 1000s of gallons of water per year
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plants’and’dry’habitats/climates’ some’plants’(cacE)’–’ adaptaEons’of’structure’ e.g.’barrel’stem’ modiFcaEons’for’water’ storage’ other’plants’–’no’ special’structures’–’ complete’enEre’life’ cycle’during’brief’wet’ periods’
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Bio%20201%20S12%20Lect%2013%20%28True%29%20v3 - Biology in...

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