Bio 201 S12 Lect 19(True v3

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Unformatted text preview: o_epi/ scripts/mod3.pdf virulence •  ability of the pathogen to cause death •  also = the severity of disease once an infecEon takes place e.g. –  anthrax = relaEvely high virulence –  currently STDs like syphillis = low virulence –  in the past: syphillis had high virulence –  unEl recently: HIV, high virulence •  sEll high many places in the world scripts/mod3.pdf Predisposition to Infections (Host Factors) Gender Genetics Climate and Weather Nutrition, Stress, Sleep, Immune status Smoking Stomach Acidity Hygiene Ecological Factors in Infections (all of these are very active research areas) Altered environment {Air conditioning} Changes in food production & handling {intensive husbandry with antibiotic protection; deepfreeze; fast food industry} Climate changes {Global warming} Deforestation Ownership of (exotic) pets Air travel & Exotic journeys / Global movements Increased use of immunosuppressives/ antibiotics modes of disease transmission •  contact transmission –  direct - handshaking, kissing, sex, bites •  e.g. STDs, rabies –  indirect - driking glasses, toothbruses, toys, proximity to sneezing/coughing •  e.g. influenza, common cold, measles, conjuncEviEs •  vehicle transmission –  airborne – in dust parEcles •  e.g. chicken pox, influenza, measles, pulmonary anthrax –  waterborne - e.g. streams and pools • e.g. cholera, many others –  foodborne - e.g. poutry and seafood •  e.g. botulism, typhoid, tapeworms and other animal parasites vector transmission –  mechanical - e.g. on insect bodies, passive transmission by touching new host, not biEng •  e.g. various proEst pathogens spread by insects –  biological - lice, mites, mosquitoes Ecks •  e.g. malaria, plague, Lyme disease •  communicable diseases •  one parasite into one host individual –  can result in thousands of hosts gexng infected –  e.g. cholera (Vibrio cholerae; a proteobacteria) –  lives in marine habitats •  infects copepods and other species in the zooplankton –  also lives in fresh water •  humans contract cholera by drinking contaminated water •  causes watery diarrhea –  millions of bacterial cells extreted by one infected individual •  get into the water; infect many others when diseases cross over •  predators can get diseases from their prey •  humans can contract viral diseases from eaEng “bush meat” civet...
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2013 for the course BIO 201 taught by Professor True during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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