Valence

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Unformatted text preview: ueanoutcomeholdsforthepersoncontemplatingit  15. Maslow’sneedhierarchy ­aconceptionofhumanneedsorganizingneedsintoahierarchyof fivemajortypes. a. Physiological(food,water,sex,andshelter). b. Safetyorsecurity(protectionagainstthreatanddeprivation). c. Social(friendship,affection,belonging,andlove). d. Ego(independence,achievement,freedom,status,recognition,andselfesteem). e. Self ­actualization(realizingone’sfullpotential;becomingeverythingoneiscapableof being).  16. Alderfer’sERGTheory ­ahumanneedstheorypostulatingthatpeoplehave3basicsetsofneeds thatcanoperatesimultaneously a. Existenceneeds ­allmaterialandphysiologicaldesires. b. Relatednessneeds ­involverelationshipswithotherpeopleandaresatisfiedthroughthe processofmutuallysharingthoughtsandfeelings. c. Growthneeds ­motivatepeopletoproductivelyorcreativelychangethemselvesortheir environment.   17. McClelland’sNeeds a. Needforachievement ­characterizedbyastrongorientationtowardaccomplishment andanobsessionwithsuccessandgoalattainment b. Needforaffiliation ­reflectsastrongdesiretobelikedbyotherpeople c. Needforpower ­adesiretoinfluenceorcontrolotherpeople  18. Extrinsicrewards ­rewardsgiventoapersonbytheboss,thecompany,orsomeotherperson 19. Intrinsicreward ­rewardaworkerderivesdirectlyfromperformingthejobitself  20. Jobrotation ­changingfromoneroutinetasktoanothertoalleviateboredom 21. Jobenlargement ­givingpeopleadditionaltasksatthesametimetoalleviateboredom 22. Jobenrichment ­changingatasktomakeitinherentlymorerewarding,motivating,and satisfying  23. Herzberg’sTwo ­FactorTheory ­affectingpeoplesworkmotivationandsatisfaction a. Hygienefactors ­characteristicsoftheworkplace,suchascompanypolicies,working conditions,pay,andsupervision,thatcanmakepeopledissatisfied b. Motivators ­factorsthatmakeajobmoremotivating,suchasadditionaljob responsibilities,opportunitiesforpersonalgrowthandrecognition,andfeelingsof achievement  24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Skillvariety ­differentjobactivitiesinvolvingseveralskillsandtalents Taskidentity ­thecompletionofawhole,identifiablepieceofwork Tasksignificance ­animportant,positiveimpactonthelivesofothers Autonomy ­independenceanddiscretioninmakingdecisions Feedback ­informationaboutjobperformance Growthneedstrength ­thedegreetowhichindividualswantpersonalandpsychological development  30. Empowerment ­theprocessofsharingpowerwithemployees,therebyenhancingtheir confidenceintheirabilitytoperformtheirjobsandtheirbeliefthattheyareinfluential contributorstotheorganization  31. Equitytheory ­atheorystatingthatpeopleassesshowfairlytheyhavebeentreatedaccording totwokeyfactors:outcomesandinputs 32. Outcomes ­refertothevariousthingsthepersonreceivesonthejob:recognition,pay,benefits, satisfaction,security,jobassignments,andpunishments 33. Inputs ­refertothecontributionsthepersonmakestotheorganization:effort,time,talent, performance,extracommitment,andgoodcitizenship  34. Proceduraljustice ­usingfairprocessindecisionmakingandmakingsureothersknowthatthe processwasasfairaspossible 35. Qualityofworklife(QWL)programs ­programsdesignedtocreateaworkplacethatenhances employeewell ­being 36. Psychologicalcontract ­asetofperceptionsofwhatemployeesowetheiremployers,andwhat theiremployersowethem ...
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