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Unformatted text preview: einforcing successive responses • Biological limits on learning – Instinctive drift (can’t teach an animal to do something against their instincts)
12 The “Skinner Box”
• When a rat in a • Skinner box presses a bar, a food pellet or drop of water is automatically released.
Similar boxes exist for pigeons and many other species.
13 Learning on Schedule
• Continuous Reinforcement: – A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced. • Intermittent (Partial) Schedule of Reinforcement: – A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced. 14 Operant Conditioning
in Real Life
• The Pros and Cons of Punishment
• The Problems with Reward 15 When Punishment Fails
• People often administer punishment •
• inappropriately or mindlessly.
The recipient often responds with anxiety, fear, or rage.
The effectiveness can be temporary, and depend on the presence of the person who administers it. 16 When Punishment Fails (cont’d)
• Most misbehavior is hard to punish immediately.
Punishment conveys little information. An action intended to punish may instead by reinforcing because it brings attention. • So…do jails work as punishment? 17 Why Rewards Can Backfire
• Extrinsic Reinforcers: – Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the action being reinforced, such as money, prizes, and praise. • Intrinsic Reinforcers: – Reinforcers that are inherently related to the action being reinforced, such as enjoyment of the task and satisfaction of accomplishment. 18 Turning Play Into Work
• When preschoolers • were promised a prize for drawing with felttip pens, the behavior increased.
After they got the prizes, they spent less time with pens than before the study began.
19 SocialCognitive Learning Theories • Learning by Observing 20 Learning by Observing
• Observational Learning: – A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior or another (a model) rather than through direct experience; sometimes called vicarious conditioning.
– E.g., girl watches her sister put on lipstick, then tries it herself
– E.g., TV shows that say “don’t try this at home” (because people will and do!)
• See www.stupidvideos.com
m=viewed&tf=daily 21 Videos
• Classical conditioning
– Watson baby Albert http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxKfpKQzow8 • Operant conditioning
– Skinner shaping http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mm5FGrQEyBY 22...
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2013 for the course SOCI 1000 taught by Professor Tim during the Fall '13 term at CUHK.
- Fall '13