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Unformatted text preview: eed for Cognitive Consistency Cognitive Dissonance: • The more effort you put into the justification process, the more attachment you will have to the organization. The more difficult the initiation, the greater the need for justification. Thus the stronger the commitment to the organization. Jones and Gerard (1967) Foundations of Social Psychology: John Wiley and Sons. 22 22 Intelligence 23 23 Intelligence Measuring Intelligence: The Psychometric Approach Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach 24 24 Intelligence Intelligence: • An inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment. g factor: • A general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents. 25 25 The Psychometric Approach IQ scores are distributed “normally” • Bell­shaped curve Very high and low scores are rare • 68% of people have an IQ between 85­115 • 99.7% between 55­145 • MENSA – score at or above the 98th percentile of an accepted IQ test http://www.mensa.org/about­us 26 26 The Cognitive Approach Idea: There are many types of intelligence; we need to look at how people think about problems and get solutions Metacognition: • The knowledge or awareness of one’s own cognitive processes. Tacit Knowledge: • Strategies for success that are not explicitly taught but that instead must be inferred by observing others. 27 27 Sternberg's Triarchic Theory Components ­ a.k.a. “Analytic” • Comparing, analyzing, and evaluating. • This type of process correlates best with IQ. Experiential ­ a.k.a. “Creative” • Inventing or designing solutions to new problems. • Transfer skills to new situations (e.g., be good at both school and the new job) Contextual ­ a.k.a. “Practical” • Using (i.e., applying) the things you know in everyday contexts. • Know when to get out of dangerous places 28 28 The Origins of The Intelligence Intelligence 29 29 The Origins of Intelligence Genes and Intelligence The Environment and Intelligence Attitudes, Motivation, and Intellectual Success 30 30 Correlations in Siblings’ IQ Correlations Scores Scores IQ scores of siblings were highly correlated, even when they were reared apart. Identical twins have higher correlations than fraternal twins. • Suggests a genetic link 31 31 Explaining Group Differences Within a group with all treated exactly the same, differences may reflect genetics. When one group differs from another, the differences may reflect environmental differences. 32 32 Environment and Intelligence Factors associated with reduced IQ: • • • • Poor prenatal care Malnutrition Exposure to toxins Stressful family circumstances Healthy and stimulating environments can raise IQ, sometimes dramatically. 33 33 Genes and IQ IQ scores in developed countries are rising much more quickly than genetics can account for. So it seems that environ...
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