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People can change.
– Gene-related behavior may impact environment (baby
that is difficult to deal with elicits negative reactions from
parents=becomes more difficult, etc.)
parents=becomes Genetic predisposition does not imply
21 Environmental Influences on
The Behavioral School
The Social-Cognitive Learning School
The Power of Parents
The Power of Peers The Behavioral School Behaviorism:
– An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of
observable behavior and the role of the environment as a
determinant of behavior.
determinant Operant Conditioning:
– The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur
or less so, depending on its consequences.
– A stimulus or event that strengthens or increases the probability
of the response it follows.
– E.g., you give a piece of candy to a child for closing the window
23 The Social-Cognitive Learning
School A theory that emphasizes how behavior is
learned and maintained through the
interaction between individuals and their
environment, an interaction strongly
influenced by cognitive processes such as
– motivating beliefs
24 The Cultural Contribution
Culture and Personality
Evaluating Cultural Theories Culture and Personality Culture: A program of
shared rules that govern
the behavior of members
of a community or society,
and a set of values,
beliefs, and attitudes
shared by most members
of that community
26 Individualism or Community? Individualist Culture:
– the self is regarded as autonomous
– iindividual goals and wishes are prized above
duty and relations with others.
duty Collectivist Culture:
– the self is regarded as embedded in
– harmony with one’s group is prized above
individual goals and wishes
27 Cultures and Time Monochronic Culture:
– time is organized sequentially;
– schedules and deadlines are valued over
– Northern Europe, North America
Northern Polychronic Culture:
– time is organized horizontally;
people tend to do several things at once
and value relationships over schedules
Middle East, South America, Southern
28 Culture And Male Aggressiveness Question: why does the American South, and
some western regions of the country originally
settled by southerners, have much higher rates of
white homicide than the rest of the country?
white Nisbett (1993) ruled out explanations based on
history of slavery
29 Culture And Male Aggressiveness The higher rates of violence in t...
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2013 for the course SOCI 1000 taught by Professor Tim during the Fall '13 term at CUHK.
- Fall '13