Curled 20 20 evaluating genetic theories reasons for

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Unformatted text preview: gidly fixed. Even People can change. People – Gene-related behavior may impact environment (baby Gene-related that is difficult to deal with elicits negative reactions from parents=becomes more difficult, etc.) parents=becomes Genetic predisposition does not imply Genetic inevitability inevitability 21 21 Environmental Influences on Personality Personality The Behavioral School The Social-Cognitive Learning School The Power of Parents The Power of Peers The Behavioral School Behaviorism: Behaviorism: – An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of An observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior. determinant Operant Conditioning: Operant – The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur The or less so, depending on its consequences. or Reinforcer: Reinforcer: – A stimulus or event that strengthens or increases the probability stimulus of the response it follows. of – E.g., you give a piece of candy to a child for closing the window 23 23 The Social-Cognitive Learning The School School A theory that emphasizes how behavior is theory learned and maintained through the interaction between individuals and their interaction individuals environment, an interaction strongly environment an influenced by cognitive processes such as influenced – observations observations – expectations expectations – perceptions perceptions – motivating beliefs 24 24 The Cultural Contribution The Culture and Personality Evaluating Cultural Theories Culture and Personality Culture: A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community of 26 26 Individualism or Community? Individualist Culture: Individualist – the self is regarded as autonomous – iindividual goals and wishes are prized above ndividual duty and relations with others. duty Collectivist Culture: Collectivist – the self is regarded as embedded in the relationships relationships – harmony with one’s group is prized above harmony individual goals and wishes individual 27 27 Cultures and Time Monochronic Culture: Monochronic – time is organized sequentially; time – schedules and deadlines are valued over schedules people people – Northern Europe, North America Northern Polychronic Culture: Polychronic – – – – time is organized horizontally; time people tend to do several things at once and value relationships over schedules Middle East, South America, Southern Middle Europe, Africa Europe, 28 28 Culture And Male Aggressiveness Question: why does the American South, and Question: some western regions of the country originally settled by southerners, have much higher rates of white homicide than the rest of the country? white Nisbett (1993) ruled out explanations based on – – – poverty racial tensions racial history of slavery 29 29 Culture And Male Aggressiveness The higher rates of violence in t...
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2013 for the course SOCI 1000 taught by Professor Tim during the Fall '13 term at CUHK.

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