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Unformatted text preview: They violate the principle of falsifiability They develop universal principles from the
experiences of a few atypical patients
experiences They base their theories on retrospective
accounts and fallible memories of patients
11 The Modern Study of
Personality Five Central Factors in
Personality – “The Big 5”
Personality Openness to Experience – curious, creative
Conscientiousness – responsible or not
Extroversion versus Introversion
Agreeableness – cooperative vs. jealous
Neuroticism – negative emotions
(Remember OCEAN) 13
13 Five Central Factors in
Personality – “The Big 5”
Personality The Big 5 are:
– Distinct traits
Stable over one’s lifetime (especially after 30)
Cross-culturally valid 14
14 The Genetic Contribution Heredity and Temperament Heredity and Traits Evaluating Genetic Theories 15
15 The Genetic Contribution Write down 10 ways that you and your
siblings (brothers or sisters) are alike Which of these do you think have to do with
genetics (you’re born with this) or
environment (you learned this from your
parents or others in your life)
16 Heredity and Temperament Temperaments:
– Physiological dispositions to respond to the
environment in certain ways; they are present in
infancy and are assumed to be innate.
– Essentially activity level and mood (active/calm;
– The functional units of heredity; they are composed of
DNA and specify the structure of proteins.
17 Heredity and Traits Heritability:
– A statistical estimate of the proportion of
the total variance in some trait that is
attributable to genetic differences
among individuals within a group. Behavioral genetics:
– An interdisciplinary field of study
concerned with the genetic basis of
behavior and personality.
18 Twins Identical (Monozygotic)
– Twins that develop when a
fertilized egg divides into two
parts that develop into separate
embryos Fraternal (Dizygotic) Twins:
– Twins that develop when two
separate eggs are fertilized by
different sperm; they are no
more alike genetically than any
other pair of siblings.
19 Twin Studies Studying identical twins separated near birth is
one behavior genetic method
one Gerald and Mark (right) met at age 31 after being
separated at birth.
separated Both are volunteer firefighters Like to hunt, eat Chinese food, and watch John
Wayne movies Drink the same brand
of beer, with their hands
held the same way
20 Evaluating Genetic Theories Reasons for Caution
– Not all traits are equally heritable or unaffected by
– Some studies may underestimate the impact of the
– Even traits that are highly heritable are not ri...
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2013 for the course SOCI 1000 taught by Professor Tim during the Fall '13 term at CUHK.
- Fall '13