Lecture VII Personality Theories Mar 7 2013

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Unformatted text preview: They violate the principle of falsifiability They develop universal principles from the They experiences of a few atypical patients experiences They base their theories on retrospective They accounts and fallible memories of patients accounts 11 11 The Modern Study of Personality Personality Five Central Factors in Five Personality – “The Big 5” Personality Openness to Experience – curious, creative Conscientiousness – responsible or not Extroversion versus Introversion Agreeableness – cooperative vs. jealous Neuroticism – negative emotions (Remember OCEAN) 13 13 Five Central Factors in Five Personality – “The Big 5” Personality The Big 5 are: The – – – Distinct traits Stable over one’s lifetime (especially after 30) Cross-culturally valid 14 14 The Genetic Contribution Heredity and Temperament Heredity and Traits Evaluating Genetic Theories 15 15 The Genetic Contribution Write down 10 ways that you and your Write siblings (brothers or sisters) are alike Which of these do you think have to do with Which genetics (you’re born with this) or genetics environment (you learned this from your environment parents or others in your life) 16 16 Heredity and Temperament Temperaments: Temperaments: – Physiological dispositions to respond to the Physiological environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate. infancy – Essentially activity level and mood (active/calm; Essentially easygoing/anxious) easygoing/anxious) Genes: Genes: – The functional units of heredity; they are composed of The DNA and specify the structure of proteins. DNA 17 17 Heredity and Traits Heritability: Heritability: – A statistical estimate of the proportion of statistical the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group. Behavioral genetics: Behavioral – An interdisciplinary field of study An concerned with the genetic basis of behavior and personality. behavior 18 18 Twins Identical (Monozygotic) Identical Twins: – Twins that develop when a Twins fertilized egg divides into two parts that develop into separate embryos embryos Fraternal (Dizygotic) Twins: – Twins that develop when two Twins separate eggs are fertilized by different sperm; they are no more alike genetically than any other pair of siblings. other 19 19 Twin Studies Studying identical twins separated near birth is Studying one behavior genetic method one Gerald and Mark (right) met at age 31 after being Gerald separated at birth. separated Both are volunteer firefighters Like to hunt, eat Chinese food, and watch John Like Wayne movies Drink the same brand of beer, with their hands held the same way (pinky curled) 20 20 Evaluating Genetic Theories Reasons for Caution – Not all traits are equally heritable or unaffected by Not shared environment. shared – Some studies may underestimate the impact of the Some environment. environment. – Even traits that are highly heritable are not ri...
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2013 for the course SOCI 1000 taught by Professor Tim during the Fall '13 term at CUHK.

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