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Unformatted text preview: �� ���������� ����� � ����� ��� ������� �� ��� ���������� � � ��� ������� ����� �� �������������� ����������� � ������� ������� � ��� ���� ������� �� ������� ������ ������ ��������������� ���� ��� ������ ��� ������ �� ��� ���������� �� ����� � �������� ����� � ������������ � ������ ����� ����� ���������� ������ ��� ������ �� ������ ��� ���������� ���� �������� � ������� ����������� � ���� ����������� �� ������� ������� ����� ������ ������ ��� ����� �������� ������ ���������� Lecture 17: Oligopoly Continued (Chapter 12) I. Cournot Math • Cournot: All firms set quantities at the same time • Calculate residual demand for a given firm and solve its profit maximization problem to find its best response function to other firms’ output decisions. • Solution is a set of quantities (one for each firm) that solves this system of equations. II. Cooperative Equilibrium - Cartels • Firms can form a cartel and behave like a single monopolist, maximizing total industry profits. • Cartels are unusual because they are fundamentally unstable (incentive to “cheat” and raise own production) and because they are illegal (antitrust laws). III. Comparing Equilibria • In terms of welfare, usually Perfect Competition > Oligopoly > Monopoly • Quantity as an indicator of social welfare • DWL in welfare analysis comes from trades that aren’t made IV. Many Firms • In Cournot, as number of firms → ∞, Cournot equilibrium approaches competitive equilibrium • As number of firms → 1, approaches monopoly • Markup over competitive price depends on number of firms and elasticity of demand: p − MC p =− 1 n V. Price Competition • Bertrand: firms set prices (instead of quantities) at the same time • Two firms may be enough to remove market power (i.e. restore competitive outcome) if products are identical • Recall proof from class that identical Bertrand duopolists drive price down to marginal cost • Also recall the Stackelberg model where one firm set their quantity before the other firm. In this case, the best response function for the Stackelberg leader takes into account the fact that the follower will respond to the leader’s output decision. � MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 14.01SC Principles of Microeconomics Fall 2011 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms ....
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